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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 4 (2013), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Yoga: An approach to holistic health for climacteric symptoms- a prospective randomized interventional study
Page 1-6
B. Jayabharathi Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai and Jayamohanraj Department of Community Health Nursing SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai

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Menopause is a normal occurrence in the life of every woman. The term is derived from the Greek, which actually means 'cessation of periods'. Menopause occurs due to cessation of ovarian function.The word menopause and climacteric are used interchangeably. It also indicates a 'change of life' from one of reproduction, which is coming to an end. The age of menopause varies from 45 to 50 years .In some woman, the age of menopause may be 51 or 52 years. This community based study tested the effect of yoga on climacteric symptoms of menopausal women. This was a prospective randomized interventional study. The study was conducted in selected villages at Kattankulathur Block, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Multistage sampling technique was used for the identification of menopausal women for the study. The total sample size was 260 menopausal women and they were randomly allotted to two groups: 130 of them to yoga group and 130 of them to control group. The yoga group has undergone yoga training programme which consists of Yogasanas, Pranayama (Breathing exercise) and Meditation. The yoga group has practiced yoga for 5 days in a week for 1 hr /day for 12 weeks by trained instructor. The assessments were made by five point Rating scale ( to assess the physical and psychological symptoms ) which is based on Standardized Menopause Rating scale(MRS)andPerceived Stress Scale ( for level of stress of menopausal women). After 12 weeks of yoga practice , the physical symptoms of menopausal women were reduced to greater extent in yoga group than in control group at p< 0.001 level of significance. There was significantly better improvement in the psychological symptoms of menopausal women in yoga group (p<0.001) than in control group. In the yoga group, there was a marked reduction of stress level after 12 weeks of intensive yoga practice (p<0.001) than in control group. The present study concluded that, yoga is an effective intervention in reducing the physical, psychological sympt
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Interobserver reliability of behavioural coding: Two case studies
Page 7-9
Ishhita Gupta, Shefali Thaman and S. P. K. Jena Department of Applied Psychology, University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi

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This study is designed to formulate behavioural coding for child behaviours in various observational settings. In order to conduct these studies, an initial behavioural definition was obtained through audiovisual demonstration of child behaviour to a group of potential observers trained in behavioural assessment. Subsequently, a set of index behaviours was identified for the sake of coding. At the next stage of the experiment, these coded behaviours were subjected to recording through time sampling by the above observers. Consequently, an inter-rater reliability assessment was conducted to examine the reliability of their observations across behaviours.
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Impact of the level of parental education on adolescent adjustment: A cross sectional study
Page 10-15
Georgitta J. Valiyamattam Department of Psychology and Parapsychology Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and D. V. Venu Gopal Psychology and Human Values, AP IIT, Nuzvid, Andhra Pradesh

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We examined the impact of the level of parental education on adolescent adjustment from early adolescence into late adolescence, across gender and grade groups comprising high school and Grade 12. Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 1337 students (676 boys and 661 girls) from High School and grade 12 in various institutes of north coastal Andhra Pradesh. Adjustment patterns were measured along the six adjustment dimensions of the Culturally Relevant Bell Adjustment Inventory (Ashok, Madhu, Suneetha & Ramana, 2004). These dimensions include- Home adjustment, Health adjustment, Submissiveness Vs Assertion, Emotionality, Hostility Vs Friendliness and Masculinity Vs Femininity. Results obtained indicated a significant impact of parental education on adolescent adjustment with a greater impact at the high school level as compared to grade 12 level. Both paternal and maternal education were relatively equal predictors of adolescent adjustment. While paternal education was a more significant predictor of adjustment for males at the high school level, maternal education became a slightly more powerful determinant of adjustment for males at the grade 12 level. Maternal education was also a slightly more influential predictor of adjustment among female students. An impact of the level of parental education was seen on the dimensions of home adjustment, hostility and masculinity in the male subsample and the dimensions of emotionality and masculinity in the female subsample. Male students with graduate fathers exhibited a greater degree of home adjustment difficulties and lowest levels of hostility. A higher level of maternal education was found to foster better home adjustment among males at Grade 12 and better emotional adjustment among females at the high school level. Both the independent and interaction effects of parental education largely revealed that the levels of masculinity tended to be high for both males and females, regardless of the grade
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Tendency to display citizenship behaviours at work: Role of subjective well-being
Page 16-20
Happy Paul and Pooja Garg Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

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With the increased role of psychology in last two decades, research on subjective well-being has gained much attention and as an outcome its role at workplace has been explored well in applied research. However, how this significant positive aspect of life functions in everyday life at work remains unknown. The paper bridges this gap and explores the potential role of SWB to augment the tendency of employees to display extra-role behaviours at workplace. It was proposed that the subjective experience of well-being would enjoy a positive relationship with the demonstration of organizational citizenship behaviours. In this venture, authors after briefly defining the constructs and looking into the literature, summarize the findings from a sample of executives working in Indian manufacturing industry (N=240). The participants were assessed for subjective well-being (Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect and Negative Affect), and organizational citizenship behaviours (Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic Virtue). The results of regression analysis revealed that the two-component configuration of SWB constituting cognitive and affective dimensions relate positively to the dimensions of OCB. It is argued that since the citizenship behaviours demonstrate the state of everyday life of an employee at workplace, it is pertinent for organizations to achieve optimal human experience and well-being. Practical implications are discussed along with the future directions for research.
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General wellbeing of the elderly and perceived caregiving burden of their family caregivers in Ranchi district
Page 21-25
Shriti Choudhary Department of Psychology, R L S Y College, Ranchi and Anjani Jyoti Toppo Department of Psychology, Ranchi University, Ranchi

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The elderly in India accounted for 5.7% in 1990, estimated to reach 12.6% in 2020 with 13% of the total population. India will have the second largest greying population in the world by 2025.(Chadha & Easwasamoorthy, 1993). Majority of them 70% will be fully dependent on productive population with a need of economic support and responsible caregiving. The relationship of elders with their caregivers and the caregiving burden has emerged as a vital field of investigation affecting the psychology of everyday life. In this backdrop, the present study attempts to measure the general wellbeing of the elderly and perceived caregiving burden of their family caregivers. The study aims to assess the wellbeing of male and female elderly and see the impact of place of residence on their wellbeing. As the wellbeing of the elderly is directly related with the caregiving burden, the present study also attempts to measure the caregiving burden of their family caregivers. Data have been collected using PGI General Well Being Measure Verma, and Verma (2009) and Perceived Caregiving Burden Scale by Gupta (2007). A purposive sample of 120 elderly, stratified randomly on the basis of gender (male/female) and place of residence (rural/urban) was taken for the study. It was found that rural female elderly scored more on Well Being Measure than their male counterpart, urban females also scored higher than the males. On total Wellbeing Measure the female sample had a better wellbeing than the male. As far as the caregiving burden is concerned, it was found negatively correlated with the wellbeing of the elders. Higher the wellbeing lower was the perceived caregiving burden. Urban caregivers perceived fewer burdens than the rural ones. In both settings, feeling of entrapment was highest perceived burden, followed by financial and sense of abandonment. The study recommends improvement in the wellbeing of the elderly for minimising the caregiving burden.
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Predictors of general health in the experience of caregiving among the caregivers of the female mentally-iii
Page 26-30
Premanand V. and Behanan S. E. Department of PG Psychology, St. Agnes Centre For Post Graduate Studies and Research, Mangalore

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A woman holds high value in the society and her mental health is as important as her physical health. However, epidemiologic and anthropological data point to different patterns and clusters of psychiatric disorders and psychological distress among women than men. The role of caregivers is highly important to make the process of recovery for female patients better with lesser relapses. A review done by NIMHANS (2011) has revealed that the role of caregivers has been ignored by the District Mental Health Programme in different states of India. The assessment of the needs of the caregivers and the problems they face is of prime significance since it affects the recovery process of the female patients. General Health is one of the needs and problems faced by the caregivers studied over the years by different researchers. Among the variables that influence General Health, Experience of Caregiving has been explored relatively less. Therefore the present study aims to find the predictors of General Health in the Experience of Caregiving among the Caregivers of the female mentally ill patients. The sample consisted of 50 caregivers of female patients who have been diagnosed with Schizophrenia (22), Major Depression (10) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (18). General Health Questionnaire by Goldberg in the 1970's and the Experience of Caregiving Inventory by Szmukler et. al in 1996 were used to assess the General Health and Experience of Caregiving respectively. Regression Analysis was used to predict General Health from the scores of Experience of Caregiving. The results revealed that Problems with Services predict Somatic Symptoms and Social Dysfunction significantly. The dimension of Loss predicts Anxiety and Insomnia significantly. Depression was found to be predicted by both Problems with Services and Dependency significantly. The findings of this study can prove to be very helpful for the XIIth District Mental Health Programme which aims at providing counselling for the
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Relationship between marital adjustment and socio-cultural determinants
Page 31-33
Navshad Ahmad Wani Govt. College for Women, Srinagar, Kashmir, Kaiser Ahmad Dar Department of Psychology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Riyaz Yaqoob Wani Galgotias College of Engineering and Technology Nodia, New Delhi

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The quest for happiness and joy in humans leads to marriage. Marriage is a lifelong interpersonal relationship between man and woman as husband and wife governed by legal, religious and customary principles. When spouses get along with each other to achieve harmonious working relationship in different areas of their marital life, adjustment is achieved. Hence, the present study was aimed at studying how socio-cultural determinants determine marital adjustment. Three dimensions of marital adjustment- sexual, social and emotional were studied in three groups, viz., husbands, wives, and couples. Sample comprised 150 participants, 50 each in three groups. Marital adjustment was measured by Marital Adjustment Questionnaire (MAQ) developed by Dr Pramod Kumar and Dr (Km) Kanchana Rohtagi. F-value revealed that the entire three groups scored significantly higher on social and emotional dimension of marital adjustment where as no significant difference was found on sexual dimension. Moreover, the three groups differed significantly when compared on all the three dimensions of marital adjustment together.
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Happiness in relation to social skills and self-esteem among youths
Page 34-37
Sandeeep Panchal Defence Institute of Psychology Research, Delhi and H. L. Joshi Department of Psychology, K.U. Kurukshetra

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The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between happiness, social skills and self-esteem in youths. The sample consists of 200 undergraduate and postgraduate students (Male 76 and Female 124) within age ranged from 18 to 24 years. Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) by Argyle, Martin and Crossland (1989), Social Skills Inventory (SSI) by Riggio (1986), and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) by Coopersmith (1975) were administered to all the respondents. The data were analyzed by using Descriptive statistics i.e. mean and SD, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation and regression analysis. The result revealed that High happiness and low happiness group youth differ significantly on the measure of self-esteem, emotional sensitivity, Social expressivity and social control variable. The correlational analysis revealed that happiness variable found to be positively significant with self- esteem, emotional sensitivity, social expressivity and social control. The step wise Multiple regression analysis found two predictors of Happiness i.e. self-esteem Social expressivity. These predictors account only 48% of total variance in happiness.
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Psychological well being and emotional intelligence among adolescent boys and girls
Page 38-40
Dheerja Singh School of Social Sciences G.D.H.G. College, IFTM University, Moradabad and Kiran Sahu Department of Psychology, Moradabad. U.P

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Psychological well being is a subjective term that means different thing to different people. A positive state of mind engendering a sense of well being that enables a person to function effectively within society and Emotional Intelligence is a type of Social Intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others emotions, to discriminating among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and action. The aim of the present study is to find out level of Psychological Well Being and Emotional Intelligence among adolescent boys and girls and further to find out gender differences regarding these variables. For this purpose 150 adolescents (75 boys and 75 girls) of Moradabad district were taken, ranging from 13-17 years. To measure Emotional Intelligence Jyotsna Codaty's Emotional Intelligence Scale (2004) and to measure Psychological Well Being Warr's Psychological Well Being scale were used in the present study; result indicated that these adolescents have higher level of psychological Well Being while low level of Emotional Intelligence. Significant gender differences are found only for Emotional Intelligence. Further there is positive but non significant correlation between Psychological Well Being and Emotional Intelligence.
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Estimation of pre-diabetes in urban adults of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Page 41-43
Jesoth Lalu Naik, Anwar Basha Dudekula, Reddy KSN, Reddy KK and Papa Rao A Department of Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

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The incidence of diabetes is continuously increasing worldwide. Pre-diabetes represents an intermediate state, which often to overt diabetes within a few years. The aim of the study is to assess the pre-diabetes in the adults of Tirupati urban, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 9 months. A total 245 subjects were taken for the study between the age group of 20-40 years. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test was done and samples were estimated for different risk factors. The data was collected and analyzed in percentage. 38(15.4%) subjects were in pre-diabetes stage (Impaired fasting blood glucose 30 (12.2%), Impaired glucose tolerance 8(3.26%) and with both features 6(2.4%)). Apart from the familial history, elevated triglycerides levels, BMI and decreased levels of HDL was found to be leading risk factors prevailing in the subjects studied (N=245). 15.4% of the subjects were found to be prediabetic. All the pre-diabetics are identified as male subjects. It was found that in more than 50% of the subjects apart from family history hypertriglyceridemia, BMI and low levels of HDL cholesterol were elevated.
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Delinquency proneness in relation to neighborhood environment of adolescents
Page 44-47
Supninder Kaur Department of Education P.K.R. Jain College of Education, Ambala City and Rita Chopra Department of Education Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

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This study was conducted to explore (a) delinquency proneness, (b) neighborhood environment perception of the adolescents and to examine (c) relation between neighborhood environment and delinquency proneness. The sample of the study consisted of 280 adolescents of Haryana. Delinquency Proneness Scale (constructed and standardized by the investigator) and Neighborhood Environment Inventory (constructed and standardized by the investigator) were used. The study reveals that Delinquency proneness is negatively related to cohesion and active-recreational orientation in the neighborhood where as conflict in the neighborhood is positively related to Delinquency Proneness.
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Attitude of teachers' towards the use of technology
Page 48-50
Poonam Sawhney Department of Teaching of Mathematics P. K. R. Jain (P.G.) College of Education, Ambala City, Haryana

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“Instruction ends in school room, but education ends only life.” The quality of the learning in derided by the quality of teachers and by the way the teachers engage the learners in their class room. So class room teaching demands more innovation and improvisation in the new millennium. In recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in how computers and the internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels. Now ICT is playing a remarkable role in the education sector. Finding that access to digital communication technology has made learning more interesting and boythe, this study was undertaken to identify the attitude of secondary school teachers towards the use of technology in their classroom, and to study the influence of sex, locality, teaching experience and type of management of school towards use of technology.
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Burnout among public and private sector managers
Page 51-55
Kiran Sahu Department of Psychology G.D.H.G. College, Moradabad and Shelley Yadav P. S. Nimtholi, Wazirganj, Budaun

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The present study was an attempt to find out differences regarding burnout among public and private sector managers. A total sample of 200 managers (100 males and 100 females) from different organizations of Delhi city included in the study. The data was collected by using Maslach Burnout Inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981).The results revealed that there were significant differences regarding burnout among public and private sector managers. On the basis of mean it has been observed that private sector managers scored higher on the dimensions of the burnout such as emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as compared to public sector managers. On the other hand public sector managers have scored higher on personal accomplishment than private sectors. This shows that private sectors have high level of burnout as compared public sectors. Gender differences were found to be significant. When we look at the mean values we found that in private sectors males and females scored higher on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and scored lower on personal accomplishment than public sectors. Males scored higher on emotional exhaustion while females scored slightly higher on depersonalization. It can be said that females experienced more cynical attitude but high level of personal accomplishment resulting low burnout in female comparison to males.
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Job involvement of working women in relation to their organizational climate
Page 56-58
T. Vijayakumari Student Counsellor, Mailam Engineering College, Villupuram, Tamilnadu

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Job involvement is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are enabled to contribute continuous improvement and the ongoing success of their organization. To plan, Coordinate and control its various activities, an organization requires individuals who, in their day-today interactions, reflect a variety of leadership styles and skills in dealing with their subordinates. Modern Indian women have made inroads into different professions that were unthinkable to women in the past. Present research is an attempt to analyze the job involvement of working women in relation to their organizational climate. To assess the working women's job involvement “Job Involvement Scale'' by Ashok Pratap Singh (1989) was used. Organizational Climate was assessed using an Organizational climate Scale developed by Singh (1989). Using simple random sampling procedure, 75 women were selected from ten organizations. The sample includes women teachers, women from IT profession and unskilled women workers. Out of 1000 questionnaire given to the employees only 680 were returned. The coefficient of correlation between working women's job involvement and their organizational climate is indicates that working women's job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Teachers and women working in private organization, post graduate working women show more job involvement. Statistical results indicated that working women's job involvement depends on the type of the organizational climate Working women come from joint family and nuclear family remains in the same category. The investigation is an attempt to study the job involvement of working women. It tries to find out the job involvement of working women with their organizational climate. Working women's job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Better organizational climate leads more involvement.
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Work life of teachers of Jammu province (Jammu and Kaskmir state): Is there any gender difference?
Page 59-61
Piyali Arora, Rubina Yasmeen, Ramjan Ali and C.L. Shivgotra Department of Psychology, Govt. College of Education, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir

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Popularly believed that teaching is a stress-free vocation may not be true in real sense, teaching actually can be demanding, creating stressful conditions for the teachers. The impact may differ between the male and female teachers. The present study was designed to examine the experience of work life of male and female teachers of Jammu province. Methods: 100 in-service teachers (50 male and 50 female) of different Government (primary, middle and secondary) schools were studied, undergoing one year B.Ed course in Government College of Education, Jammu. Teachers were assessed on 'occupational stress index', 'quality of life scale', and 'social adjustment inventory'. Results and Conclusion: Female teacher's reflected greater occupational stress, poor quality of life and poor social adjustment compared to male teachers.
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Job stress of the civil servants: Its impact on hostility and general health
Page 62-67
Deepa Ghosh Netaji Subhas Mahavidyalaya, Udaipur, Tripura.

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Employees stress is an increasing problem in today's organisation. Job Stress means destructive physical and emotional response that arises when the necessity of a job do not match with the competencies, resources or need of the employee. A certain amount of job stress is necessary to be motivated for doing something remarkable. But excessive stress can interfere with one's productivity and affect one's physical and emotional health. Civil Service is the executive branch of the government which is enshrined in Article 311 of the Indian Constitution. The civil servants are entrusted with the significant task of administering public offices which include implementation of different policies framed by the Legislature. They play a vital role in full proof execution of the policies and programmes of the government. The civil servants, upon whom the development of the country or state depends, should be stimulating and enthusiastic in discharging their duties. They must also possess a sound physical and emotional health. Otherwise, their adjustment process to the family and to the rigorous day-to-day affairs of the administration will be disturbed. The goal of the present study is to find out the level of stress among the civil servants of Tripura. This study also aims to examine the relationship between job stress and hostility of the civil servants. Further, this study also explores the impact of job stress on hostility and general health of the civil servants. The study involves 50 civil service officers (IAS-24; TCS-26). Only male respondents are included in this study. Job Stress Test (Paliwal, 1982), Hostility Test (Paliwal, 1982) and General Health Questionnaire (David Goldberg, 1979) are used to measure the job stress, hostility and health condition of the respondents. Simple random sampling technique has been used to collect data. The survey is conducted using structured face to face interviews. Results were analysed by using t-test and r-value. Results indicate
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Influence of family climate, relations with peers and adjustment on adolescents' well-being
Page 68-71
Aditi Sharma University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The present study aims to find out how the family climate, relations with peers and adjustment with others influence the overall personality and well- being of adolescents. The sample of 100 adolescents (25 boys and 25 girls from Government schools and 25 boys and 25 girls from public schools) was taken who were the students of 11th and 12th standard from various streams and administered on the Dimensions of Friendship Scale (DFS) by Chandna and Chadha, Adjustment Inventory for School Students by Sinha and Singh and Family Climate Scale by Shah. Data interpretation of Government and public school students on the peer group relations shows that on the dimension of enjoyment, trust, mutual assistance, understanding and spontaneity the students of Government and public schools do not differ significantly but on the dimension of acceptance and confiding they show significant difference. No significant difference is seen on the adjustment dimension. On the family climate variable significant difference is seen. Family climate of public school students is better than government school students.
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Prevalence and associates of hypertension among tirupati urban adults, Andhra Pradesh
Page 72-75
Anwar Basha Dudekula, Jesoth Lalu Naik, Reddy KSN and Papa Rao A Department of Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

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Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and control of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among the Tirupati adult population of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India, and identifies correlates associated with it. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Tirupati Municipal Corporation. The study included 271 adults who reside in this area and who were 20 years old or older. The subjects were evaluated through one-hour interviews at their homes. After each subject was interviewed, three consecutive blood pressure measurements were conducted. The data were analyzed by proportions, F-ratios, chi-square tests, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. Sixty-five of the 271 subjects (24%) were found to have hypertension. Among the 65 subjects with hypertension, 54 (83.1%) were aware of their hypertension and were undergoing treatment for the condition. However, among the 54 subjects being treated, only 31 subjects (57.4%) had satisfactory control of their hypertension. A higher prevalence of hypertension was found among subjects who had a BMI greater than 25, were 40 years old or older, had a family history of hypertension, had a history of previous cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events, had diabetes, smoked, drank alcoholic beverages, and consumed excess salt. A comparatively higher prevalence was found among males, subjects whose diets were non-vegetarian, people with high saturated fat intake, and subjects who did not engage in physical exercise. Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood pressure. Health education programs are needed to teach the public how to control the various risk factors associated with hypertension.
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Life skills and mental health
Page 76-79
Kiran Sahu and Deepika Gupta Department of Psychology, GDHG College, Moradabad, U.P.

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Mental health describes a level of psychological well-being, or an absence of a mental disorder. From the perspective of 'positive psychology' or 'holism', mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life, and create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Life skills refer to the abilities that help promote mental well being and competence in young people as they face the realities of life. The World Health Organization has defined life skills as, "the abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life". Many abilities like decision making, problem solving, creative thinking, critical thinking, effective communication, interpersonal relationship skills, self- awareness, empathy, coping with emotions, coping with stress are the different life skills. Life skills based education and intervention programs cultivate the necessary abilities among children at very early level to maintain emotional and mental health. Developing life skills helps people translate knowledge, attitudes and values into healthy behaviour, such as acquiring the ability to reduce special health risks and adopt healthy behaviour that improve their lives in general such as planning ahead, coping with stress and emotion, decision-making, and forming positive relationships.
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Impact of positive psychology at work place-self well being and experiences at workplace
Page 80-82
Ekta Sharma 13, Gopal Surya Tenement, Nr. Sola Railway Crossing Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

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The positive psychology of the employee can be the catalyst of the organizational growth. One of the biggest challenges confronted by workplaces today is work related stress which causes health problems and hence higher absenteeism and higher turnover. So, wellbeing techniques and tools can be an antidote for the negativities of the workplace. The present study aims to find out the impact of Workplace experiences on the well being of the employee. The study has been conducted on the sample of 120 employees. The data pertaining to an employee perspective of 'Self Well Being' at work place has been collected through a General Satisfaction with life scale (GSWL) and Scale of positive and negative experiences at workplace (SPANE). As the results of the survey shows, the employee well being is not high, which corroborates the non salubrious work place environment. So, if the economic growth has to be accelerated the well being of the employee should be given utmost importance.
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Impact of gender and managerial levels on emotional intelligence and job performance of Indian revenue service officers
Page 83-86
Richa Shukla and Dinesh Nagar Faculty of Psychology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, M.P.

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The sagacious use of emotions or emotional intelligence in the workplace is being recognized as an influential factor in enhancing the well being and work related outcomes. Similarly job performance is the most extensively researched criterion variable in both organizational bahaviour and human resource management literatures. The present study was conducted as part of a larger study in a public sector organization with an all India presence. This study explored the impact of gender and managerial levels on emotional intelligence and job performance. 300 IRS officers (232 Males and 68 Females) from the four zones (east, west, north and south) and three managerial levels (147 junior, 90 middle and 63 senior level) were asked to rate 60 items of emotional intelligence in a scale developed by Singh and 33 items in a self developed scale of job performance. Results found that female officers exhibit relatively higher social skills (component of EI) as compare to male officers whereas there is no difference in job performance among male and female officers. Furthermore, officers of senior managerial level exhibited higher self regulation and social skills and also higher organizational commitment, satisfaction with rewards and incentives, high organizational support and total job performance as compare to the officers of junior and middle managerial levels.
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Sexual and reproductive health education for adolescents: Need of the hour
Page 87-90
Mutum Silpa Devi and S. Jaya Department of Human Development, Avinashilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, University, Coimbatore

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Today, globally the reproductive health of adolescents is of growing concern undeniably due to the alarming increases of sexual and reproductive health problems. Even though reproductive health care is a relatively new concept it is undoubtedly proven to be a very important component in general health. Reproductive health care is needed throughout life span of every individual specially women and precisely during adolescence since it is crucial during this period. Yet in most culture it is most prominently addressed during adulthood. Adolescence being the period of pubertal changes, sexual maturation, curiosity and experimentation make them vulnerable. Despite being acknowledge the special needs of adolescents are largely ignored due to the perpetuate idea of discussing anything related to sex is taboo. Without any or little knowledge from unreliable sources adolescents are exploring themselves in this field resulting in adolescent pregnancies, unsafe abortion, contracting STIs including HIV/AIDS further hinder in social and economic development of nation. The findings of various studies recommend one of the key actions needed to improve reproductive health is the empowerment of adolescents especially through education programmes. This paper draws attention to the urgent need of the intervention strategies aimed at enhancing adolescents' knowledge and bring desirable changes in their attitude thus to strengthen the quality of practices on reproductive health care.
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Student problems as related to family environment: A comparative study of single and dual earning families
Page 91-94
Sudha Katyal Department of Human Development & Family Relations, Government Home Science College, Chandigarh

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The present study was conducted to identify the problems of students studying in IX and X standard as well as to find out the relationship of problems of students belonging to single and dual earning families with their family environment. The sample comprised of randomly selected 100 students, with 50 students each from single and dual earning families, studying in five different Government Models Schools of Chandigarh. The findings highlighted that students from single earning families were found to have more of academic problems while students from dual earning families were found to have more of social and personal problems as compared to their counterparts from single earning families. It was also found that highly significant differences existed between the two types of samples with regard to cohesion, independence, organization and recreational orientation of their families. Findings also showed that as student problems increased, the scores on family environment decreased.
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Dark triad of personality: A theoretical review of the concept
Page 95-98
Harprit Kaur and Swati Department of Psychology,Punjabi university, Patiala

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Dark triad of personality has been into limelight of research since early twentieth century. Initially the research in this area was limited to delinquent and criminal population but lately the focus shifted onto the normal population. Dark triad of personality is a group of three personality traits that are narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. All these traits are interpersonally aversive There has always been controversy over the empirical overlap between the members of dark triad, this research paper tries to explain dark triad of personality and prove that though there is empirical overlap between the members of dark triad still all the three are distinct constructs and different research work pertaining to this has been compiled in this paper. The paper also throws light on how the dark triad of personality lie on other personality scales such as big five and HEXACO model. Moreover the issue of potential interest in this paper is that negative traits are part and parcel of normal personality profile.
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Impact of yoga on blood glucose level among mother with gestational diabetes mellitus at government hospital, Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu
Page 99-105
Abirami. P and Jayamohan Raj SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu

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Pregnancy induces progressive changes in maternal carbohydrate metabolism. As pregnancy advances insulin resistance and diabetogenic stress due to placental hormones necessitate compensatory increase in insulin secretion. When this compensation is inadequate,GestationalDiabetes develops.'GestationalDiabetesMellitus' [GDM] is defined as carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognitionFirstduring pregnancy.To treat Gestational Diabetes Mellitus naturally the Antenatal Mother with GestationalDiabetesMellitus should practice Yogis positions (SUKSHMA VYAYAMAS) along with Pranayama (breathing exercises) & Meditation Toevaluate the effect of Yoga on Blood glucose level among mother with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. This was a prospective interventionalstudy and it was conducted at Government Hospital, Tambaram. 212Antenatal mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus were randomized into yoga and control groups. Sample size was detected based on Power analysis and selection of the samples based on Non-probability purposive sampling technique. Quasi Experimental -Time Series Design was adopted.. The yoga group (n = 104) received standard care plus Intensive, continuous Yoga practice daily for (30-40 minutes/ day) from 24th week to 36th week for 12 Weeks from the trained yoga instructor.. The control group (n = 108) received standard care from the Hospital. Fasting and post prandial Blood Glucose level was Continuously monitored every 4th week before Yoga at 24th week after Yoga from 28thweek to 36th week.. Among Yoga group, 24th week Fasting blood glucose mean score was 122.99 mg/dl after intensive practice of Yoga the mean score at 28th week 106.31mg/dl, 32nd 102.37mg/dl and 36th week 90.27mg/dl and the Post prandial Blood Glucose mean score at 24th week 160.45mg/dl and after yoga the mean score at 28th week 140.14mg/dl, 32nd 127.01mg/dl and in 36th week 117.13mg/dl . So this reduction was statistically significance. It was assessed using Repeated measu
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Effect of family coping intervention on family system strengths among the caregivers of stroke survivors
Page 106-109
M. Hemamalini and Jayamohanraj Department of Community Health Nursing, SRM College of Nursing, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu

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In Industrialized countries stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability among people living in their own homes. If a person survives, the initial effects of stroke, much functional capacity can often be restored with intensive rehabilitation efforts. WHO Collaborative study showed that both developed and underdeveloped country nearly one third of stroke patients died in three weeks and 48% died within one year. The incidence of stroke is about 19% higher in males than in females. About 25% of cases occur in people younger than age 65(American Heart Association, 2007) .The presence of a serious, chronic illness in one family member usually has a profound impact on the family system, especially on its role structure and the family functions. Families play an important supportive role during the course of a client's convalescence or rehabilitation. Most caregivers of stroke survivors find themselves in a stressful situation. Research has shown that taking care of stroke survivors creates burdens for caregivers and decreases their levels of well-being. To evaluate the Effect of Family Coping Intervention on Family System Strengths among the care givers of stroke survivors. True Experimental pretest and posttest design. The study was conducted in Kattankulathur Block, Tamilnadu. 240 caregivers of stroke survivors participated in the study. The experimental group was given family coping interventions such as counseling, enrollment in self help groups, and involvement in recreational activities, After 3 months, there was significant difference in the family system strengths between the experimental group and control group at t=37.58, and p value was 0.001. The present study concluded that Family Coping Intervention programme is an effective nursing Intervention recommended for the caregivers of stroke survivors to enhance their Family system strengths.
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The relationship between organizational culture, leadership and worker motivation towards the performance of educationists
Page 110-112
Nugraha Gumilar Prod Manajemen Pendidikan, Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

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This research aimed to study the relationship between organizational culture, leadership and worker motivation on the performance of educators. To reach the objective, a surevey was conducted among 111 teachers, which was determined by proportionate random sampling in 14 educatuonal institutions of Indonesian National Armed Forces and then the obtained data were analyzed by using correlation methods. In Indonesia, the Army has its own unique spirit, called Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath as guidance in performing tasks to achieve organizational goals. The values ​​contained in Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath are able to shape the attitudes and behavior of members of the organization, generate pride and spirit of togetherness that create a conducive organizational culture, strong leadership and motivation to improve their performance. Thus, the values ​​contained in the Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath are implemented within the Army organizational culture, leadership and motivation of educators to improve the performance of educators.The implementation of the values containted must be done consistently and consequently in order to be internalized in the mindset, action and constructive attitudes of the educators in improving their performance.
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Effect of yoga on physiopsychological parameters among hypertensive adults
Page 113-116
Sujatha and Jaya Mohanraj Department of Community Health Nursing, SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu

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Hypertension is a major chronic lifestyle disease and an important public health problem. This leads to numerous micro/macro vascular complications and subjects with hypertension are known to have a two-fold higher risk of developing coronary artery disease, four times higher risk of congestive heart failure and seven times higher risk of cerebro vascular disease compared to normotensive subjects.This community based study tested the efficacy of yoga controlling hypertension by studying its impact on Blood pressure and Anxiety among Hypertension Adults, Kancheepuram district, Tamil nadu, India. Experimental before and after design. Villages under Kattankulathur block, 238 subjects aged 30 60 who were being treated for mild and moderate hypertension took part in the study. The group allocated to practice yoga exercises for 5 days for 2hrs daily and continued performing twice daily for 12 weeks with regular treatment. The control group are also under medications but not given any specific exercises. The data were analyzed by proportions, chi-square tests, student independent t-test, Karl pearson's correlation and 95% confidence intervals. The study shows that the mean systolic BP & Anxiety in interventional group differed significantly. As regards SBP in the pre & post intervention setting the mean SBP is reduced from 152.75 to 138.51 (14.24) mm of hg and For control group, 152.85to 152.38 (-0.47) mm of hg . This fall in SBP in Intervention group was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Likewise for DBP, it is reduced from 94.51to 86.17 (8.34) mm of hg whereas the change in DBP values of the control group was not significant. State trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of anxiety and showed a mean reduction of 12.6% state anxiety and 11.3% trait anxiety among interventional group. The yoga asanas were very simple and can be done in the home setup with the daily activities to decrease the blood pressure and Anxiety
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Study of loneliness in relation to depression and sex-role orientation
Page 117-120
V.V. Upmanyu, Shelly Bhagat and Amit Dwivedi Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh and Mayank Upmanyu Department of Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar

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This study concerns with the prevalence of loneliness in a sample of college students and examines gender-differences in loneliness as a function of sex-role orientation and depression. Two hundred college students (100 male and 100 female) aged between 16 and 18 years were tested to ascertain the level of experienced loneliness. The study revealed: (1) college students experienced moderate degree of loneliness, (2) the two genders differed significantly in sex-role identity (3) males with androgynous and masculine sex-role identity did not differ significantly in perceived loneliness; the additional presence of feminine characteristics in androgynous sex-role identity failed to provide any special benefits in terms of vulnerability to loneliness, (4) males with androgynous and masculine sex-role orientation, however, were less lonely than feminine or undifferentiated characteristics, (5) for female, there was no significant difference in loneliness among different types of sex-roles orientation, and (6) gender differences in loneliness failed to reach statistical significance among groups low on depression.
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Life satisfaction as a correlate of death anxiety among elderly
Page 121-124
Princy and Tejpreet Kaur Kang Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University,Ludhiana

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Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes, which occur during the life span and result in differences in structure and function between the youth and the elderly. Traditionally the term elderly has been referred to people who have attained certain age chronologically. Ageing is an inevitable process in which physiological, emotional and mental changes are observed in declining form. It is also known as a closing period of life span. It is “moving away” from more desirable period. Life satisfaction is a sum total of the perception of an individual towards his various aspects of life. It is his life in family, society and the environment he lives in. It is a composite measure comprising of physical, mental and social well being as perceived by each individual or by group of individuals. Life satisfaction includes happiness, satisfaction and gratification as health, marriage, family, work, financial situations, belongingness and trust in others. Life satisfaction of an individual is influenced by various factors. Amongst them death anxiety is one of the major influencing factor. Death anxiety (Thantaphobia) refers to fear and apprehension of one's own death. It is the neurotic fear of loss of the self, which, in intense state, parallels feelings of helplessness and depression. Man's awareness of his own death produces anxiety in him. Death anxiety is feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude when one thinks of what happens after death, the process of dying or ceasing to be. The study “life satisfaction as a correlate of death anxiety among elderly ” was conducted on 360 elderly persons (180 males and 180 females) residing in Punjab state. Only those elderly were selected for the sample who were leading a retired life, were not suffering from any deadly disease, living with their spouses and belonged to middle socio economic status families. Socio-Economic Status Scale developed by Bharadwaj was used to assess the socio economic status of the respondents.
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Perception of self acorss gender among the managers of telecom sector
Page 125-128
Shukla Archana and Fatima Amreen Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow

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The present study endeavours find out the perceived self among the managers of telecom sector and to study the gender difference among them. 50 managers were selected (25 males and 25 females) through convenience sampling. The mean age was 35 years. The WHO AMI? technique, by Bugental and Zelen (1950) was used in the present study for the better understanding of perceived self among the managers of telecom sector. Gender differences were noted in the perception self. Male managers' personality bears more positive shades as compared to female managers. Males' perception was more self-focused as compared to females whose perception of self was other - focused
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Relationship between temperamental qualities of siblings and parental differential treatment
Page 129-132
Poonam, Shakuntla Punia and Shanti Balda Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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The concept of temperament directs our attention to important aspects of child individuality that must be considered in parenting. Using a sample of 120 families having two children who were between 10 and 17years of age and their parents, this study assessed the relationship between child temperament and parental differential treatment and was undertaken in purposively selected Hisar city, of Haryana State. Thereby, the total sample was consisted of 240 children (120 older and 120 younger siblings) and 240 parents. Both parents were informants for temperamental qualities. Malhotra's Temperament Schedule (Malhotra and Malhotra, 1988) was used to study child temperamental qualities. Comparative distribution of younger and older siblings on different temperamental qualities depicted that younger siblings were more social, had positive moods as well as more active, and whereas, older siblings were relatively more attentive. Berkeley Parent-child Interview Schedule developed by Ablow and Measelle (1993) was used to study PDT. In the face of social norms for equal treatment, the present study provided evidences that mothers and fathers often treat their offspring differentially. As per siblings' perception regarding PDT in the domains of warmth, over half of mothers and fathers both favoured younger siblings more than the older siblings, whereas, nearly same percentage of both parents were relatively more hostile to the older siblings. Correlation results clearly established that children's temperament statistically predicted maternal differential warmth and hostility treatment of siblings in the family. Implications for intervention programs targeted at decreasing differential treatment are discussed.
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Assessment of depression among children through multi-informant approach
Page 133-135
Shakuntla Punia, Santosh Sangwan and Poonam Department of HDFS, College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, Haryana

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Depression in the children merits special mention because the early onset of depression in children is associated with poorer prognosis and a severe and recurrent course in adulthood. Researchers are in favour of using multiple informants when assessing children for possible depressive disorders. The current study examined depression in a sample of 80 children aged between 11-15 years. Using baseline data from multi-informants i.e. children, parents, and teachers, this study examined depression agreement across two or more informants. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) (Kovac, 1985) was used to measure depression using child, parent and teacher version. The study indicated that as per child and teacher report, one-fourth of total sample was detected with depression symptoms but parents reported slightly higher percentage of children with depressive symptoms (31.3%). Mean comparison results revealed that reports of multi-informants were significantly different from each other. The results of the study provide confirmation of earlier findings on depression. The study will increase awareness in public and among stakeholders about mental health disparity among children in Haryana. Implications for the integration of multi-informant assessment information are discussed.
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A multidimensional assessment of quality of life of elderly across varying support systems
Page 136-140
Sarita Saini Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, PAU, Ludhiana

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The present study was undertaken to perform a multidimensional assessment of Quality of Life of elderly (65 years & above) living in various types of support systems. The study comprised a sample of 400 subjects from Ludhiana city, equally drawn from four support systems viz. elderly living with sons, living with daughters, living alone, and living in institutions. The sample was further divided over the two sexes. Quality of life is a complex, multifaceted construct that requires multiple approaches to develop insights about Quality of Life. Thus, a Quality of Life Profile, senior's version prepared and published by Quality of Life Research Unit, University of Toronto, Canada (2000) was administered to measure the Quality of Life (QOL) of the subjects across various dimensions of QOL and different support systems. This Quality of Life approach recognizes that there are three different 'Components' of living that contribute to Quality of Life (QOL) of an individual. These are Being, Belonging and Becoming Components. Each of these components has three dimensions. Thus, there are nine specific dimensions / areas that are an integral part of the lives of all individuals. All these need to be considered to assess an individual's Quality of Life (QOL). The spectrum of strong and weak dimensions of the Quality of Life across four support systems was developed which clearly pointed towards Leisure Becoming, Growth Becoming and Community Belonging as the most vulnerable dimensions of Quality of Life of elderly living across four support systems. It was further observed that the 'Physical Belonging' emerged as the reasonably strong dimension of QOL across majority of support systems. Therefore, culture and region specific inputs were suggested to strengthen the weaker dimensions to ameliorate the QOL of the elderly.
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Proactive coping skills: Gender differential in different ecological settings
Page 141-144
Neetu Singh Gautam, Shakuntla Punia and Poonam Yadav Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Proactive coping skills consist of efforts undertaken in advance for a potentially stressful event to prevent it or to modify it's form before it occurs. The present study intended to compare the proactive coping skills of elderly males and females in different ecological settings. A sample of 120 males and their wives, belonging to NCR (Gurgaon) and Non-NCR (Hisar) were selected in the age range 35-40 years. Proactive coping skills were measured using Hindi Adaptation of Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) developed by Bhushan et al. (2010). The results showed that males and females in higher percentage were in average category on all aspects of proactive coping skills as well as composite proactive coping skills. Though, non-NCR respondents (male and female) were using better proactive coping skills than their counterparts. Significant differences existed in reflective coping (z=2.54, p<0.05), preventive coping (z=2.70, p<0.05) and composite proactive coping skills (z=2.04, p<0.05) in male across two regions, whereas, females differed significantly in reflective coping (z=2.97, p<0.05) and composite proactive coping skills (z=2.09, p<0.05) in both regions. Instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking and avoidance coping skills were more used by females.
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Why punish or punished
Page 145-146
G. Bhadramani Department of Psychology, SPW Degree & PG College, Tirupati

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There is a lot of hue and cry regarding the prevalence of corporal punishment in the countries around the world. Innumerable studies have probed into the width and depth of the problem. Lengthy reports were presented with respect to the kinds and consequences of punishment on the student's academic and personal life. As a consequence most of the countries have banned corporal punishment at school and home. In spite of the presence of strict laws condemning corporal punishment, it is still a regular practice resorted by many a teacher in schools today. The present paper makes an attempt to understand the modalities operating behind the use and abuse of punishment in schools. Why teachers resort to corporal punishment and why students invite it by adopting undesirable behavior in the classroom were discussed in the present paper.
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Anger and its management
Page 147-151
Anju Gautam Department of Psychology, C.C.S University Campus, Meerut, U.P.

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Everybody feels anger from time to time. People have been documented feeling anger since biblical times when God was considered angry. Babies even exhibit signs that are interpreted as anger, such as crying or screaming. Anger is not in any way unique to people. Animals also have the ability to feel and express anger. In our personal lives we get angry over at least one thing on almost a daily basis, whether it is on the job, with a spouse or loved one, or perhaps with a figure of authority. Anger is a healthy emotion when it is expressed appropriately. When it is not, it can have devastating effects. Anger is at the root of many personal and social problems, e.g. child abuse, domestic violence, physical and verbal abuse and community violence etc. Problematic interpersonal relations may also disrupt employment activities because of the interference of anger on workplace performance. Anger can destroy relationships, obstruct problem solving skills, and increase social withdrawal. Anger also affects our physical health. For example, it can tax our immune system; contribute to headaches, migraines, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Anger is a healthy and valid emotion. But many of us are taught not to express or show our anger. There's no doubt about it: we live in an angry society. Signs that anger abounds are all over the place. There is desk rage, road rage, spousal abuse, sports rage and most recently spam rage. Anger is a worldwide phenomenon and referrals to anger management programs have exploded since. Present paper attempt to explore anger and its remedial aspects in a theoretical context.
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Psycho-social factors contributing to superstitious behavior and its management: Literature review
Page 152-154
Manasvi Shrivastav and Anuradha Kotnala Department of Clinical Psychology, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, U.K.

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The present article reviews on researches on psycho-social factors contributing to superstitious behaviour and its management. In western countries so many researches has been conducted on superstition. Some researches shed some light on social and psychological factors responsible for superstitious behaviour. Psychological factors include fear, locus of control, confidence level etc. and social factors such as, locale, socio-economic status etc. management refer to the counselling to control superstitious behaviour. Superstitions exist everywhere in the world. Every country on the planet has its own local superstitions. Each country also has its own variations on common superstitions. Some of the most common superstitions have to do with cats, alcohol, and death. Most superstition from the past have been proven by science as unnecessary, ineffective or just plan silly but are still practiced by normal intelligent people today. Around the world, there are many reappearing themes for superstition. Every country has its own localized take on each theme.Superstition is quite common in human society. For example, a huge number of newspapers and magazines carry regularly horoscopes, which indicate the high demand for reading horoscopes. Different researches touch the different aspect of superstitious behaviour in different situation. This research review article is an approach to compile these researches to shed light on all these aspects.
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A comparative study on the concrete and abstract dimensions of memory in school students
Page 155-159
Sr. Marry Kutty and Ruchi Bajpai St. Ann's College of Education, Autonomous Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh

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One cannot imagine life without memory. No one can have an identity without it. Without memory we would live forever in present moment with no recollection of our past, including experiences and people that are important to us and no anticipation of future. Memory is crucial for all but there is no other time during which memory demands are greater than the school years. The aim of the study is to compare the concrete and abstract dimensions of memory among students. All learning materials presented to students come under either concrete or abstract form. It is very important to find out whether different age groups have same or different ability in recall of learning material, concrete as well as abstract. Study includes 144 students, 72 boys and 72 girls from three different age groups i.e. 9 to 11 years; 12 and 13years and 14 and 15years. A list of concrete and abstract words was used as a tool for each age group. The statistical calculations include mean, standard deviation and t-test. The study concludes n That concrete words are recalled significantly better than the abstract words. Concrete words are coded in our imagery system as well as in our verbal system where as abstract words are coded in our verbal system. This dual coding account for better learning of concrete learning materials than abstract learning materials. n There is no difference in recall of concrete or abstract words by both boys and girls. n Further it was also found that subjects of oldest age group had higher recall of both concrete as well as abstract words than the other two younger age groups.
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Personality assessment of institutionalize children
Page 160-161
Krishna Pd. Gogoi Department of Education, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh Assam,

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The present study aimed at assessing the various personality dimensions of institutionalised children who are put into certain institutions at an early formative period of life. In this study, the purposive sampling method was adopted and Rorschach Ink-blot Test, as an assessment technique, was considered an appropriate technique for data collection. Total 200 sample were selected out of which 100 Institutionalised Children and 100 Home reared Children from different such orphan homes and schools located in Assam. The 2x2 factorial design was employed. Age range from 6-11 years of the children. The findings of the study reveals that Institutionalised Children shows poor cognitive, perceptual and intellectual development. They develop negativistic behavioural pattern like anxiety and depression shows the extratensive characteristics.
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Role of self-efficacy in quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS
Page 162-165
Naina Sharma Department of Distance Education, Punjabi University, Patiala and Gurminder Sokhey Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala.

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The purpose of the study was to examine the role of self-efficacy on Quality of Life of people living with HIV/AIDS. The sample of the present investigation comprised 225 subjects (male=116 and female=109) in the age range of 20 to 50 years from lower and middle class families. Only those subjects were included who were able to understand, read and write hindi/Punjabi/English. The HIV/AIDS patients were randomly selected from various ICTC and ART centers in Punjab. Self-efficacy was studied by using HIV self- efficacy (HIV-SE) questionnaire (Shively et al., 2002) and Quality of life was measured by using MOS- HIV Health Survey (Wu, Rubin et al.,1991). Pearson Product Moment coefficient of correlation was computed to study the role of self-efficacy in quality of life. The results revealed that various domains of self-efficacy like managing depression, managing fatigue, managing symptoms and getting support were found to be positively correlated with physical functioning, cognitive functioning, mental health and QOL.
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Effect of movements and positions of labouing women on maternal satisfaction during first stage of labour
Page 166-170
M. Vaijayanthimala SRM University, Kattankulathur Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu and Jaya Mohanraj Department of Community Health Nursing SRM College of Nursing, Tamil Nadu

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Controversial opinions on movements and positions during labour still exits. In today's scenario immobility as become common occurrence during labour due to risk focused management made obstetricians and midwife become inconvenient, discouraged and restricted with the use of movements and positions. Additionally lack of resources and accurate information to these issues depicts that need for an hour to be discussed and analysed to find evidenced based practice intervention and to maintain sense of normality and make birth “as nature intended”. To evaluate the effect of movements position changes on maternal satisfaction and explore the relationship between maternal satisfaction with demographic variables, pain and obstetric variables. A quantitative experimental study was conducted among 211 primi parturient mothers who were in active stage of labour with uncomplicated pregnancy were allocated to experimental group (n=106) and control group (n=105). Movements and position changes like walking, rocking, swaying were provided to experimental and not to control group. Both the groups were received hospital routine care. Pain was assessed by using VAS scale, 24 hours after the delivery the maternal satisfaction with movements and positioning was assessed by three point rating scale which has reliability of 0.82. There was a significant difference found between experimental and control group on maternal satisfaction at p=0.01 level. Mean score also was high in experimental group depicted statistical significance. There was a significant association found in maternal age, education, support system, source of information and body mass index. The study concluded that adoption of various movements and positions during first stage of labour enhanced maternal satisfaction on child birth. Considering available evidence and result of this study recommends that various positions and movements during labour is an effective intervention that can be practiced in birth centres and co
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Emotional intelligence and academic achievement of ninth graders: A comparative study of boys and girls
Page 171-174
Sudha Katyal and Anu Department of Human Development & Family Relations, Government Home Science College, Chandigarh, India

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The present study was an attempt to investigate emotional intelligence and academic achievement of boys and girls of ninth graders. The study was carried out on a sample of 100 students (50 boys+ 50 girls) from five randomly selected Government Model Schools of Chandigarh. The findings revealed that majority of boys had good followed by low level of emotional intelligence and academic achievement. On the other hand, majority of girls had good and high level of emotional intelligence and academic achievement, respectively. There existed highly significant difference between boys and girls with regard to both the variables.
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Education as determinant of parental knowledge regarding management of learning difficulties among children
Page 175-179
Deepika Vig and Sumandeep Kaur Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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The present research study investigated the impact of an intervention programme designed to enhance the knowledge levels of parents regarding management of learning difficulties among elementary school children across various educational levels. The study was carried out in 15 urban Private schools of Ludhiana City. From each school, 3rd and 4th class children facing problems in reading, writing and mathematics were randomly selected. The total sample consisted of 300 students. Parents of these selected students constituted the total sample of the parents .The parents were given intervention on various aspects of learning difficulties among children. Pre and post-intervention knowledge scores were assessed across two educational levels. The results indicated that intervention significantly improved the overall knowledge scores of the parents from poor to good level across all educational levels. However, after getting intervention, graduate and post- graduate parents were found to have significantly better comprehension and application skills as compared to parents with education up to matric and middle. Highly educated parents were better able to utilize the gained knowledge for solving day to day problems faced by their children.
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Creativity among B.Ed students of nandyal town in relation to their achievement motivation
Page 180-183
M. Rajendra Nath Babu and V. Dayakara Reddy Department of Education, S. V. University, Tirupati, A. P.

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Creativity is an asset to any nation, which needs creative scientists, engineers, economists, poets, painters, musicians etc. Development and progress in different areas of national life depends on creative children. Creativity is the main source of emergence and development of human culture. A creative person is the product of a number of abilities and favorable personality traits. The study was conducted on B.Ed students to study their creativity in relation to their achievement motivation with respect to their gender and locality in Nandyal Town. Sample comprised of 200B.Ed students in Nandyal Town .The Rao achievement motivation test developed by Gopal Rao, NCERT was used for the present study. Mean, SD, and t-test were used for the analysis of the data.
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Influence of peer pressure on adolescents: Negative effects
Page 184-186
P. Jayanthi Department of Psychology, University of Madras, Chennai

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According to Erik Erikson, adolescence is the age in which people must set up an identity to escape identity diffusion and confusion. At this age, adolescents give much importance to their friends who have a power over them. This phenomenon is called “peer pressure.” Oxford English Dictionary defines peer pressure as the influence from members of the same group. One may think of many kinds of peer pressure that may have a positive or negative aspect. Peer group is a term commonly used by psychologists to describe people of a similar age, often when talking about adolescents. There is peer pressure in different ages and different places. For instance, workers at the same factory have peer pressure which is positive because each one of them tries to do his or her best at work. There is peer pressure among small kids; they try to do the same gestures and have the same toys and there is also peer pressure in ethnic groups. Finally, there is peer pressure among adolescents which is the most important kind since it influences the adolescents' personality and intervenes in the development of their morality.
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Maternal socioeconomic status and nulliparity: A double fold risk factor for preeclampsia among antenatal mothers
Page 187-193
K. Latha Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai and Jaya Mohan Raj Department of Community Health Nursing SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai

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Preeclampsia is a condition in which hypertension and proteinuria is present with or without edema in a woman after 20 weeks of gestation, who has been previously normotensive. In spite of known risk factors & screening tests being proposed over years, there is only a small part of association explained on the effects of established risk factors for preeclampsia in most of the studies, recommends for further research on risk factors. To determine Maternal Socio-Economic status & Nulliparity together as risk factor for Preeclampsia among mothers. Total 109 Healthy antenatal mothers in 2 groups, 53 mothers in Group A (Nulliparous Mothers in low socioeconomic status, 56 mothers in Group B (Nulliparous Mothers in Upper Middle Socio-Economic Status) with absence of Clinical Features of Preeclampsia were recruited at 15 16 weeks of Gestation and were followed till 36 weeks of Gestation for the features of Preeclampsia. There was no Significant Difference between both the groups with all the baseline characteristics. At the end of 36 weeks , the overall prevalence of Preeclampsia in Group A was Higher about 73.58 % ( 39 out of 53 mothers) , compared to 48.2% (27 out of 56 Mothers) in group B at t(107) =2.598, P = 0.011,MD =2.161 ( 95% CI,0.512 3.810) respectively. Screening for risk factors has been relative lack of consideration among health care professionals towards prevention of preeclampsia among the high-risk population .Maternal socioeconomic status and Nulliparity together is considered as a significant double fold risk factor for preeclampsia & hence they should be targeted for intensive Preeclampsia surveillance. Hence the investigator recommends strengthening antenatal care, to establish a strong supportive framework for the guide to health care providers for better understanding of the impact and epidemiology of Preeclampsia in India.
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Academic stress in relation to self-efficacy and mindfulness among senior secondary school students
Page 194-196
Sangeeta Saini GSSS, Gangwa, Hisar, Haryana and Vandana Punia Department of Education, CDLU, Sirsa, Haryana

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Academic stress is the product of a combination of academic related demands that exceed the adaptive resources available to an individual. If a student is unable to cope effectively with academic stress, then serious psycho-social-emotional health consequences may result (Arthur, 1998; MacGeorge, Samter, & Gillikan, 2005; Tennant, 2002). The current study examined relation in academic stress in relation to self-efficacy and mindfulness among senior secondary school students. The findings indicated that there was significant negative relation in academic stress, self-efficacy and mindfulness among boys and girls.
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