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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 3 (2012), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Adaptive behaviour in children with mental retardation as a correlate of maternal stress
Page 1-6
Abdul Majeed Bhat and Omar H. Dar Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, J&K and S. Alam Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Research consistently indicates that parents of children with mental retardation report considerably more stress associated with child characteristics than parents with typically developing children. It is commonly believed that the adaptive functioning and problem behaviour of a child with mental retardation plays a significant role in the stress a parent experiences especially mothers. The present study examines maternal stress and adaptive behaviour of children with mental retardation and attempts to find out relationship among maternal stress in mothers with that of adaptive behaviour in children with mental retardation. Participants consisted of a purposively selected 60 mothers and their respective children with mental retardation. Mothers ranged in age from 26 to 40years, with an average age of 33years (SD=4.292) and their children with mental retardation ranged in age from 48 to 192months, with an average age of 114.767 months (SD=33.742). Maternal stress in mothers was assessed using the Family Interview for Stress and Coping in Mentally Retarded Section-I (FISC-MR-I). Adaptive and Problem Behaviour in children with mental retardation were assessed using the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) respectively. The results established a relation between maternal stress and adaptive behaviour of the child (r=-0.617), maternal stress and this correlation was found statistically significant. The specific mother related and child related demographics that are related to elevated maternal stress levels are discussed. The correlation among maternal stress scale domains and adaptive behaviour scale domains scales are also discussed.
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Perceived mental health among students of private and government schools
Page 7-10
Amjad Ali and Abu Sufiyan Zilli Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Since, private and government sectors differs to each other in terms of their cultural values, other related opportunities and problems, therefore, the present investigation is planned to make a comparative study of mental health among students of private and government schools. It was hypothesized that students of private schools would have better mental health as compared to the students of government schools. The sample of the present investigation consists of (N = 160) respondents, 80 students from each private and government senior secondary schools were randomly selected from different parts of Aligarh, U.P. A highly standardized mental health inventory consisting of 56 items developed by Jagdish and Srivatava (1983) was administered individually to each respondent of the sample. This inventory assesses 6 dimensions of mental health such as self- evolution, perception of reality , integration of personality, autonomy and stability, growth oriented attitude and environmental mastery. In this inventory high score is indicative of good mental health and low score is indicative of poor mental health. Finally, t- test was employed to analyze the data of the present research. Statistical analysis reveals significant difference between means of two groups of private and government schools. The findings of this research may have its own significance and far- reaching implications in this context.
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Quality of life, job burnout and mental health among nurses in Iran
Page 11-14
Bahman Kord Tamini and Asghar Karamad Department of Psychology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran, P. Ramalingam UGC-Academic Staff College Pondicherry University, India and Shirin Rigi Department of Educational Management University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

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The present study aims to ascertain the relationship of quality of life with job burnout and mental health. 101 nurses (37 male and 64 female) were selected at random from a government hospital in Yazd City (Iran). Quality of Life Scale (QOLS), The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used to collect the data. There was a significant positive correlation between quality of life and personal accomplishment but quality of life negatively was correlated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and total scores of mental health. Total scores of mental health (GHQ) explained 18.9% of the variance in quality of life and it was a significant negative predictor for quality of life. Personal accomplishment explained 8.5% of variance in quality of life and it was a significant positive predictor for quality of life. There was no statistically difference in study variables with regard to age. Females showed significantly higher mean scores on physical symptoms and anxiety in comparison to males. Results revealed that nurses who are working in other units of hospitals obtained higher mean scores on depression and total scores of mental health (GHQ) in comparison to Emergency, CCU&ICU, Surgery and Internal units.
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Medium of instruction in relation to academic anxiety, achievement skills and level of creativity
Page 15-17
S. B. Chawan, Babasaheb Chitale Mahavidyalaya Bhilawadi, Sangli and Priyanka Department of Psychology, J N V University, Jodhpur

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In the present investigation medium of instruction in relation to anxiety achievement skills and level of creativity is studied. Present study is a correlational field study in which medium of instruction is taken as independent variable and creativity level, creativity and achievement skills are taken as dependent variables Academic anxiety skills for children by Singh and Gupta (1971) and non verbal creativity test by Mehandi (1973) were used. Achievement skills measured through Hojan (1975). The total number of 600 sample is used of males and female students. It was hypothesized that Academic achievement and anxiety and achievement will be influenced by medium of instructions. Findings confirm the hypotheses.
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Anxiety, depression and counselling: A comparative study on tribal and non-tribal students of Tripura
Page 18-23
Deepa Ghosh Netaji Subhas Mahavidyalaya, Udaipur, South Tripura

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Present study aimed at investigating and comparing anxiety and depression of the students (all boys) of tribal and non-tribal community. The present study also aimed to assess the role of counselling as an effective technique for reducing anxiety and depression. The sample comprised of 80 students (40 non-tribals and 40 tribals). Their age ranged from 15-18 years. The sample was randomly selected from the four different schools of South Tripura district. Beck depression inventory and Bengali version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) adapted by Mallik and Chattopadyay were used to collect the data. Findings showed that there was significant difference between the tribal and non-tribal students on trait and state anxiety (t=2.45*, t=3.16** respectively) and depression (t=3.84*). In all respect, the non-tribals possessed severe amount of depression and anxiety. Results revealed that there was positive correlation between the anxiety and depression of the students.. However, no significant relation was found between state anxiety and depression of the tribal students. Counselling proved to be a very effective technique for reducing anxiety and depression of the students.
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Influence of organizational identification and job tenure on organizational commitment
Page 24-27
Fatima Bi and Shamim A. Ansari Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The objective of the present investigation was to study organizational identification and job-tenure as a function of organizational commitment. Data were collected from a sample of 287 teachers teaching in Aligarh Muslim University. For collecting data on 'organizational commitment' scale developed by Shah and Ansari (2000) were used having three dimensions namely, 'affective', 'continuance' and 'normative' commitment and for 'organizational identification' scale developed by researchers (Bi & Ansari, 2011) was used, having seven facets viz., 'organizational prestige', 'organizational belongingness', 'autonomy in organization', 'employee-centered management', 'promotional opportunities', 'supervisory behaviour' and 'transparency'. Job-tenure was assessed the number of years spent in his/her professional career. Results of regression analysis revealed that 'organizational identification' is significantly and positively predicting three criterion variables viz., 'organizational commitment', 'continuance commitment', and 'normative commitment' while 'organizational belongingness' emerged as significant and positive predictor of 'organizational commitment' and 'normative commitment'. 'Organizational prestige' only predict positively to 'affective commitment' while 'transparency' predict negatively to 'normative commitment'. It is to mention that job-tenure has not been found instrumental in predicting 'organizational commitment' and its various dimensions. The findings are discussed in the light of supporting studies and their conclusions are given.
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Impact of training and organizational change on affective commitment among public and private office workers
Page 28-29
Kainat Rizvi and Shah Alam Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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This paper is designed to study the impact of employees' training and organizational change on affective commitment of office workers. The study was conducted on 200 private and public sector employees. Sample was drawn by using purposive sampling. The population belongs to an age group of 30 to 50 years. Only male population was considered in this paper in order to control the gender effect. Human Resource Development Scale developed by Shawkat and Ansari (1998) based on 12 dimensions and 40 items. Out of 40 items, only the items of 2 dimensions (viz; training and organizational change) were administered to measure affective commitment. Simultaneously, organizational commitment scale developed by Shah and Ansari (1998) consisted of 15 items and three dimensions was also administered. From 15 items only 5 items of one dimension were administered by the investigator to measure affective organizational commitment. 'Two-way ANOVA' was used to find out the main and interactional effect of training and organizational change on the affective commitment. The results revealed that only training has found its significant influence on affective commitment but organizational change, main and interacted with training did not influence the affective commitment of office workers.
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Religiosity, locus of control, need for achievement and aggression among buddhists and non- buddhists adults of Jalgaon
Page 30-31
Labhane M. J. College, Jalgaon, Maharastra

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It is believed that all the religions are peace loving religions, and the followers of that religion must develop tolerance for others who follow different religions. Relevant hypothesis were formulated for need for achievement, aggressive behaviour and consideration of gender difference Religion, sex, intelligence and SES were treated as independent variable while religiosity, LOC, need for achievement and aggression were treated as dependent variables. 2x2x2x2 factorial design was used and to avoid any complications, cell frequency in each group was kept constant. 432 males and females worked as sample. Their age was between 17-21. Rotter Scale (1996) for locus of control and Achievement Incomplete test by Mukherjee (1997) were used.. Findings partially confirm the findings.
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Tomorrow's doctors: How vulnerable are they to stress
Page 32-35
Satish Ambhore Department of Psychology, Indian Railways, Central Railway Head Quarter, CSTM, Mumbai

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Medical education is perceived as being stressful with negative effects on students' mental health. However, few studies have addressed the influence of gender on the level of stress and vulnerability to stress in medical students. The aim of this research paper is to compare the level of stress in male and female medical students. It will also assess the correlation of vulnerability to stress and perceived stress in medical students. A total of 69 medical students (39 male and 30 female) of various medical colleges of Mumbai were assessed by utilizing self- administered Perceived Stress Scale and Vulnerability to Stress Scale. The result reveals that there is significant difference in male and female medical students groups and the positive correlation was found between vulnerability to stress and perceived stress in medical students.
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Influence of self-concept and psychological well-being on academic performance
Page 36-38
Shabana Azmi and Shamim A. Ansari Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The present deliberation is aimed to see the influence of self concept and psychological wellbeing on academic performance. For this purpose a sample group of 10th standard of school boys and girls (N=300) were chosen and the tests were administered on these students. A self concept measure developed by Ahluwalia (1986) was used for taping information regarding students' perception pertaining to their self concept. For measuring psychological wellbeing, a scale developed by Bhogle and Prakash (1995) was used. And for academic performance the results of the students for the last three consecutive years were taken and the averages of these were obtained for determining students' performance level. Adopting 2X2 factorial design, Two way ANOVA was run by using SPSS package. The obtained results have clearly indicated that pattern of influence of self concept and psychological wellbeing independently as well as in conjunction thereof. Having run this statistics, it was found that both the independent variables have their significant influence on academic performance but interactional effect of both independent variables was not found statistically significant.
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Enhancing psychosocial development of children with special needs through emotional intelligence
Page 39-42
Wasim Ahmad RKMVU, FDMSE, Coimbatore and Sita Ram Pal Mamta Mandir, Gujarat

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The psychosocial development is highly essential for any individual for the smooth functioning of the self as well as with respect to social context. Even though emotional intelligence is not a new concept which has been used by the psychologists and other school psychology professionals in the regular schools since few decades, very less importance is given to the emotional aspects of the children with special needs in the inclusive set ups where they are integrated along with normal peers. This paper discusses the responsibility of the regular teachers in meeting the diverse emotional and social needs of children with disabilities in inclusive setups. This paper is an attempt to analyze how psychosocial development can be enhanced using emotional intelligence among the children with special needs. It also suggests about few practices in school psychology that can successfully meet the heterogeneous needs of children with disabilities and empower them in terms psychosocial development.
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Opinion of college boys and girls about dowry, pre-martial counselling and dating
Page 43-45
Zarine Immanuel Mother Teresa's Women's University, Kodaikanal, T.N. and Kalyani Kenneth Rajiv Gandhi National Institute for Youth Development, Chennai

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This study is aiming to bring about changes in the attitude of today's adolescents and to get their opinion on sensitive topics like dating and pre-marital counselling which is a taboo and unheard of in certain places in India.The survey was conducted among 200 college boys and girls from the college in Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu. Seventy-five and seventy- three percentage of boys and girls respectively opined against taking dowry for various reasons while the remaining were in favour of it. About eighty nine percent of boys and seventy percent of girls expressed the need of having premarital counselling for making their prospective marriage successful. Around seventy-five percent of boys and fifty- five percent of girls were ready to date their prospective spouses before marriage to get to know them well. It can be seen in the study that the number of adolescent boys who are against taking dowry is seventy-five percent and for the adolescent girls it is seventy three percent. However the fact that the dowry system is still widely practical contradicts these views. There was a positive feedback for the need of pre-marital counselling.
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Role of school environment on aggression among adolescents
Page 46-49
Amrita Sharma, Pragati Dixit and Naima K. Gulrez Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The purpose of the study was to determine the role of school environment on aggression among adolescence. School environment can be defined as an environment where students experiences caring relationship with and healthy expectations from school staff and take part in school and class activities.Aggression can be defined as behaviour aimed at causing harm and pain, psychological harm, personal injury or physical distraction. K.S Misra school environment inventory and Buss and Perry aggression scale was used to measure school environment and aggression on adolescence respectively.The sample consisted of 60 children with age range of 12-16 years.Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Significant results were obtained.The findings will be discussed in the light of relevant literature.
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Extroversion characteristics in relation to visual search
Page 50-51
Priyanka Department of Psychology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur

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The present study is aimed to study extroversion characteristics in relation to visual search. It is hypothesized that extroversion characteristic will be helpful in the process of visual search. In this study visual search is independent variable and extroversion characteristics were acted as the dependent variable. A sample 100 students of post graduate and under graduate (male= 50, female= 50) were randomly selected. Eysenk personality questionnaire (EPQ-R) by Eysenk and Eysenk (1980) was used to measure extroversion characteristics and visual search was used for search purpose. Findings revealed that extroversion characteristics are positively correlated with visual search. It is concluded that extroverts perform better because of their outgoing nature and because of less shy and interactive nature with full confidence.
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Significance of gender for teachers' life satisfaction and job satisfaction
Page 52-55
Sherkar Subhash Tulshiram Department of Psychology, Shivaji College, Hingoli, Parbhani, Maharastra

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In present study, an attempt was made to explore the significance of gender for Teachers' Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction. Total 60 teachers with equal number of male and female from various school of Marathwada were selected as a sample. Teacher Job-satisfaction Questionnaire (TJSQ) by Kumar and Mutha (1996) and Life Satisfaction Scale by Singh were used to measure teachers' job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Two group randomized design was used to reach out the objective of the present investigation. Obtained data was analyzed by employed t test. Result revealed that life satisfaction criterion of teachers was not found to be fluctuate with their biological characteristic that is gender whereas female teacher was significantly higher on their satisfaction regarding their job as compare to male teachers.
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A study of developmental object relations in nail biting children
Page 56-58
Vallari T. Kukreti Department of Psychology, L.S.M.Govt. P.G. College, Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand

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Nail biting has always been a matter of concern for the usually not for the psychological reasons, but it being a socially repulsive activity. Researches have brought into the various dimensions of the problem, like, dental complexities due to nail biting, personality structure and traits making an individual vulnerable to the problem. The present study aims to analyze developmental object relations of the nail biters. The study will help in revealing and creating insight in the internalization of object relations of nail biters. A sample of 20(10 nail biters and 10 normal) children of 10-12years was purposively taken of both the sexes. DORS, a RIBT measure was employed on the Rorschach responses of the nail biting and normal children. The results revealed that 40% of the nail biting children had attained autonomy and on the other hand, 80% of the normal children have achieved autonomy. Remaining 60% nail biting children revealed dependency, rapprochement, differentiating/practicing and fluctuation from autonomy to differentiating/practicing categories of object relations.
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Psychological well-being of native and migrant (repatriated) teachers of Kashmir valley
Page 59-62
Nila Majied and Mahmood S. Khan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Prevalence of armed insurgency in the valley in early 90's led to large scale forced migration of the families of Pandit community from the valley. Over the year's variety of measures, in terms of financial assistance, relief and other initiatives have been taken by the government to provide succour and support to the affected families. Moreover, recently Government announced inter-alia, a package for return and rehabilitation of Kashmiri Migrants who wish to return valley. According to the package, jobs in the State Government services are being provided to the educated migrant youth who are willing to come back to their home land. Taking in to consideration all important aspects of hardships faced by the Kashmiri migrants, the present studies was an attempt to asses and compare the psychological wellbeing of Native and Migrant (repatriated) teachers of the valley. The sample consists 60 teachers (30 native, 30 migrant).General Health Questionnaire -28 (Goldberg & Hillier 1979) was used to measure the psychological wellbeing of both the groups. This scale had five dimensions that is, somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression .Students t- test was used to compare the two groups in terms of their mean score for psychological wellbeing as a whole and dimension wise. Result showed that the Native and Migrant (Repatriated) groups of teachers did not differ significantly in terms of psychological wellbeing as a whole and also on its dimensions. But the trend shows that Migrant (Repatriated) teachers have better psychological wellbeing as compared to the Native teachers.
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A study of personality characteristics and psychological distress among nursing students
Page 63-65
Divya Merciline and O. S. Ravindran Department of Psychology, Sri Ramachandra University, Tamilnadu

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The purpose of the study was to find out the personality characteristics and to identify the presence of depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate nursing students of both first and final year. The sample for the present study consisted of 100 subjects (16 males and 84 females). They were assessed by the following tools: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Depression Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS). Results were discussed using percentages and t-test. Results indicated that the first year students have experienced higher level of distress than the final year students.
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Role of health locus of control in determining physical and psychological distress among type-2 diabetes mellitus patients
Page 66-69
Sadaf Hameed, Shahin Zehra, Ashfia Nishat, Mehmoodun Nisa and Huma Hilal Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The present investigation was done to study the effect of Health Locus of Control on Psychological and Physical distress among type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. The sample consisted of 100 type 2 diabetic patients (50 males and 50 females) with a mean age of 56.44 years. The sample was taken from an endocrinology OPD of a government hospital. PGI Health Questionnaire N-1 by Verma, Wig and Pershad was used to evaluate the physical and psychological distress among diabetics, to assess health locus of control, 18 item Health Locus of Control scale developed by Wallston and Wallston was used. Multiple regression analysis was done to see the effect of Health Locus of Control on Physical and Psychological Distress among type 2 diabetics. Results showed that among the three dimensions of Health Locus of Control, Chance significantly predicted psychological distress and internal locus of control significantly predicted physical distress among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Female diabetic patients scored significantly high on physical distress than their male counterparts.
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The impact of self-efficacy on stress and depression among university students
Page 70-72
Saika Farid, Shabana Azmi and Shamim. A. Ansari Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Higher education studies have become stressful day by day due to extremely high work load, future consciousness in students and due to expectations of parents/ caregivers. These responsibilities and challenges result in stress which has been widely accepted as the main barrier for academic success. In the long run, stressful life events are changed into bad moods, negative cognitions and towards depressive symptoms. Self efficacy is impactful not only in maintaining emotional, behavioral and cognitive functioning but also on the whole considered as a key element for optimizing human potential. Self efficacy is a development of learning process that masters self control which enables the individuals to authorize themselves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of self efficacy on stress and depression among university students. Sample comprised of students (N=75) of post graduate level. Sample was divided into male (n= 35) and female (n=40). Data were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results indicate that self efficacy have significant influence on both stress and depression. Thus, results clearly indicated stronger self efficacy produces better higher education outcomes and it appears as a negotiator of stress and depression for university students.
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Adaptation of an emotional intelligence scale for adolescent girls in Bengali
Page 73-74
Sebanti Mitra and Indrani Mukherjeez Department of Psychology, Calcutta University, Kolkata

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Schutte et al.'s (1998) emotional intelligence scale was adapted and administered to 50 Bengali adolescent girls. The scale was translated in Bengali, discussed with experts & administered to the adolescent girls. The reliability & validity were calculated. The final Bengali version of the scale contained 25 items. The Bengali version of emotional intelligence scale emerged to be valid & reliable & would be useful in assessing emotional intelligence of the adolescent girls of West Bengal.
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Alcohol dependents: Quality of life and marital satisfaction with their spouses
Page 75-79
Thiyam Kiran Singh Department of Clinical Psychology, Postgraduate Institute of Behavioural & Medical Sciences, Manopchar, Chhattisgarh and M.V.R. Raju Department of Psychology and Para psychology Andhra University, Vishakapatnam

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Alcohol dependence affects physical and mental health, and causes problems with family, friends, and work (Ovuga & Madrama, 2006) In this study 620 samples were collected out of which 310 were alcohol dependent and 310 were spouses and attempted to find out the quality of life of alcohol dependents, marital satisfied of alcohol dependents towards the spouses and marital satisfaction of the spouses towards alcohol dependents. The study was conducted at in patient department (IPD) and outpatient department (OPD) of Vijayawada Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (VIMHANS) using specially designed Socio demographic and Personal data sheets. The informations were gathered from alcohol dependents using severity of alcohol dependent Questionnaire (SADQ) and WHOQOL-100 Australian Version (2000) to find out the severity of alcohol dependence and quality of life respectively. Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) was used to collect information from alcohol dependents subjects and spouses to evaluate their marital satisfaction. The result found clinically most of the alcohol dependents were severely dependence on alcohol and have poor quality of life. Majority of the alcohol dependents were expressing adequate marital satisfaction towards the spouses but majority of spouses were not satisfied towards alcohol dependents.
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Attitude towards medication adherence in chronic patients: Need for psycho-education
Page 80-84
Arunima Gupta, Punam Midha and Sonia Malik Department of Psychology, M.D.University, Rohtak

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In the present era millions of people are challenged with chronic debilitating disorders which can be controlled but not cured. So long term medication and its adherence are important factors in successful management of chronic diseases. Non-adherence not only leads to serious health consequences but also raises the healthcare costs. The present study compares the patients' attitude of medication adherence towards four chronic diseases i.e. diabetes, arthritis, asthma and hypertension. A purposive sample of 160 patients comprising of males and females in the age range of 30-50 years was drawn from OPDs' of various departments of PGIMS, Rohtak and private clinics of Rohtak city. Patients' medication adherence was assessed by using Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Results indicated that overall 66.9% patients showed adherence. The patients with diabetes showed maximum adherence (80%), followed by asthma (70.73%), hypertension (65.85%) and arthritis (59.90%). ANOVA followed by t-tests indicated significant differences between patients of different chronic diseases. Socio-demographic factors did not show any significant effect on medication adherence except for education and duration of illness. A few strategies to strengthen the attitude towards medication adherence are discussed.
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Single mothers and domestic violence: Nature and interventions
Page 85-88
Sonam Dullat and Sangeeta Trama Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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Domestic violence is one of the biggest human rights violations that affect women all over the world regardless of their color, nationality or age. This problem has taken such a form that women appear to be as much at risk of facing violence inside of the home by a husband or partner, as they are outside by strangers. For that purpose, domestic violence is first not limited to acts of physical and sexual violence only, it also encompasses economic and emotional violence acts. Even women themselves often ignore the real meaning of domestic violence, believing that they are being subjected to “normal behavior”. The issue of domestic violence is no more considered purely a private personal affair. It is being increasingly recognized as an aspect of human rights jurisprudence. The incidence of domestic violence is a widespread social phenomenon. It pervades across cultures and countries. Hence, violence against women and girls must not be interpreted merely “as an individual fate”, but has to be recognized as systematic discrimination. Violence against women is the expression of a historical and traditional hierarchy of social values and unequal power relations between the sexes. Therefore, what is required is not only a strong legal support network but also opportunities for economic independence, essential education, awareness, alternative accommodation, a change in attitude and mindset of society, judiciary, legislature and the most important woman herself. Restructuring society, in terms of power and role relationship while emphasizing the egalitarian values, is the need of the hour. So, considering the inter-connections between the factors responsible for domestic violence a multi-layered strategies and interventions should be designed within a comprehensive and integrated framework.
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A comparative study of mental health and general well-being among male and female alcoholics
Page 89-91
Mahvish Fatima, (Hafiz) M. Ilyas Khan and Zulfiqar Ullah Siddiqui Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The present study is an attempt to assess the mental health and well-being of alcoholics (100 alcoholics, 50 males and 50 females) of age between 20-50 years. Tools used for the collection of data included P.G.I Health questionnaire (N-1) and P.G.I General Well-being measure. The scores of the individuals were treated statistically, tabulated and interpreted. The results revealed that there is significant difference between male and females alcoholics with regard to their mental health and Well-being. The male alcoholics are in a high state of mental health and Well-being in comparison to female alcoholics.
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A study of mental health and stress among government and private sector employees
Page 92-93
Hardik A. Shah and Y. A. Jogsan Diparment of Psyclology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat

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The present study aimed to find out the Mental Health and Stress among Government and Private Sector employees. The total sample consisted of 100 among 50, Government employees and 50 private sector employees. The research tool for mental health was measured by Bhatt and Gida (1992) and life stress scale was developed by Aggarwal and Naidu (1986). Obtained scores were analyzed with help 't' test and 'r' was applied to check correlation, Results revealed that significant difference in mental Health and Stress with respect to both employees from Government and private sector on Mental Health and stress, while the correlation between Mental Health and Stress reveals 0.81 very high positive correlation
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The effect of terrorism on self-efficay of children living in Kashmir
Page 94-96
Shar-ul-nisa-Haroon and Roomana N. Siddiqui Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Kashmir, the paradise on earth has witnessed decades of disputes. The valley has been disturbed since 1989 when militancy era begins. The whole population is affected by militancy but the worst sufferers are the children. The present study tries to investigate the effect of terrorism on the self efficacy of the children living in Kashmir valley. The sample of 100 students studying in 11th and 12th standard with age range of 16-18years was taken. A scale namely personal self-efficacy developed by Kumari and Singh (1989) was administered. The data was collected from the two groups of students residing in highly terrorism affected and low affected areas. In order to get results t- test will be applied to get the difference in the level of self-efficacy of two groups of participants in response to terrorism.
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Anxiety and self-esteem among students of private and government schools
Page 97-99
Pragati Dixit, Amrita Sharma and Mahmood S. Khan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state that consists of the feelings of fear, suspiciousness and restlessness. Self esteem refers to self evaluation. It is the way an individual feels about himself. Present study was undertaken to examine the difference between anxiety and self esteem among students of Private and Government schools. For that purpose Beck Anxiety Inventory and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were used. The sample consisted of 60 students (30 in each group) with age range 12- 15 years selected by means of purposive technique of sampling. Results indicated that students of private and government schools differ significantly in terms of anxiety and self esteem and socio economic status also plays an important role in determining one's self esteem and level of anxiety.
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Influence of school environment, parental attachment and peer attachment on emotional problems of adolescent students
Page 100-106
V. Vithya and S. Karunanidhi Department of Psychology, University of Madras, Chennai

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Emotional problems are considered as one of the major psychological tribulations experienced by children, adolescents and adults. Emotional problems were found to be predominant in school going adolescent students, contributing to serious learning, physical and mental health impairments. Indian studies have also reported that 10- 74% of schools going adolescents were found to suffer from emotional problems (John, 1980; Dhavale, 1994; Bhola & Kapur, 2003). It is very important to understand and find out the causal factors of emotional problems among school students which could help in preventing the emotional problems. Keeping this in mind, the present study made an attempt to identify the predictors of emotional problems among adolescent students. The main objectives of the study were (i) To find out the interrelationship among Emotional Problems, School Environment, Parental Attachment and Peer Attachment. (ii)To find out the predictors of Emotional Problems among adolescent school students (iii) To find out the influence of Demographic variables like Age, Gender, Socioeconomic Status, maternal Occupation, Parental Education, type of School, etc In order to fulfill these objectives, a sample of 300 adolescent students from class IX to XII were included for the study and their age ranged from 14 to 18 years. The tools used for the study were (i) Screening Tool for Emotional Problems (STEP) (Erford, 2007) (ii) Inventory of Parent & Peer Attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987) (iii) School Environment Scale (Fend & prester, 1986). The data collected were analyzed using appropriate statistical analysis. The results were discussed in the light of previous research findings.
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Discussing fratricide in armed forces: A psycho-social perspective
Page 107-111
Adfar Rashid Shah Department of Sociology Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi and Nuzhat Firdous Department of Psychology Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi

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The exploring of the phenomenon of fratricide in armed forces has suffered from a scholarly disinterest hitherto. Sociologists, psychologists, policy makers and defense authorities have shied away from exploring this fatal trend in a holistic perspective particularly in the Indian context. Though few Studies have been conducted on the theme but hardly any study has been concerned and linked to the troopers' marginalization or alienation within the system itself. The concern and emphasis so far has largely been limited to the combat strategies and effective operational planning but the individual soldier as a human being still remains under-discussed and undervalued while overemphasizing on the security system and law and order maintenance mechanism as a macro structure. Also the role of concerned defense intellectuals and the agencies in this regard are not only uncertain and insufficient but apathetic as well. This paper mainly focuses upon the fratricide as a psycho-social phenomenon and digging the various factors responsible for this growing trend, which if left unchecked can have serious implications upon the armed forces discipline, excellence and security situation and above all reliability factor and security of defense mechanism and of men in uniform while dealing with their own colleagues or officers.
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Positive and negative religious coping and quality of life in patients suffering from cancer
Page 112-115
Ankit Awasthi, G.D. Koolwal and Sanjay Gehlot Department of Psychiatry, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan and Swati Awasthi B. D. S., Research Assistant

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The cancer experience inspires fresh or renewed interest in religion. Religiosity and religious coping have been found to be significantly associated with better quality of life and improved adjustment to cancer. The present study attempts to assess the religious coping and quality of life of patients suffering from cancer. Objective of the study was to study socio-demographic profile of cancer patients and to assess their religious coping and its association with their quality of life. The present study was conducted on 98 cancer patients, admitted in wards of Radiotherapy and Medicine Departments in M.D.M. Hospital, Jodhpur. Three questionnaires were applied: a semi-structured socio-demographic proforma, brief RCOPE scale and subjective well being inventory. Results suggest that female patients had higher scores on positive religious coping scale. Patients with different cancer types showed little variation in religious coping scale. A strong correlation was found between positive religious coping scores and subjective well-being inventory scores. Present study concluded that greater use of positive religious coping was related to better overall quality of life, while greater use of negative religious coping was associated with worse overall quality of life.
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Depression, suicidal ideation effect on quality of life in HIV/AIDS patient's and normal population: A comparative study
Page 116-119
Ashok Parashar, Charu Shila Kadu and J. Mahto Postgraduate Institute of Behavioural & edical Sciences, Manopchar, Chhattisgarh

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The aim of the present study is to see depression, suicidal ideation effect on quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients and normal population. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a global health problem which has brought new dimensions to some of the already complex issues threatening India. We all know the impact HIV/AIDS has had on the World, but what people don't realize is the impact it is having on other serious health issues in the country. Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric co morbidity and a common cause of significant morbidity among people with HIV infection. Suicidality may be the direct physiological result of HIV, a reaction to chronic pain, an emotional reaction to having a chronic and life-threatening illness. Quality of life is a phrase used to refer to an individual's total wellbeing. The sample size of the study is 30 HIV/AIDS patients and 30 normal populations. The tools used for assessing the variables are beck depression inventory (BDI), WHO quality of life (WHOOL-BRIEF), suicidal ideation scale (SIS).
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The effect of CCTV monitoring on cheating behaviours among college students
Page 120-124
Charlane Pereira

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This paper presents the report of an investigation to explore the effect of CCTV monitoring on cheating behaviours among 100 college students at Smt. Parvatibai Chowgule College in Goa. The study adopted the completely randomized experimental design with 4 experimental conditions - CCTV Monitoring Condition, CCTV and Human Monitoring Condition, Partial CCTV Monitoring Condition and No CCTV Monitoring Condition and observed the cheating behaviours of college students under an opportunistic situation. The study also determines the sex-wise and discipline-wise differences in cheating behaviours among college students. One-way ANOVA and t tests were used in the statistical analysis. The findings indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in the cheating behaviour scores in the four experimental conditions. The results also revealed that cheating behaviours among college students did not differ with regard to sex and discipline. Implications of the research findings are also discussed.
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Stress and academic self-concept of SC/ST college students
Page 125-130
M. Surendra Department of Anthropology S. V. University, Tirupati and P. Munirathnam Reddy Department of Centre for South East-Asian Pacific Studies, S.V.University, Tirupati

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Going to college is important decision in most of student's life. They need to prepare themselves not only to work hard to alive their academic goals, but also to cope with the multitude of stresses in the personal, social, academic, and vocational domoins endemic to the college context. They need a positive concept of their ability to live a normal life given the various pressures/ stresses. Students having a negative perception of their abilities may find it difficult to soi through their social-educational environment and accomplish their goals. They may be at risk of losing academic interest, failing to acquire a sense of satisfaction with their academic work for go opportunities for initative and leadership role, and eventually develop feelings of alienation and rejection a companied by a monifestoation of less positive academic self-concept. The problem are likely to be even more serious for students coming from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds and struggling with the development of positive self-concept in the given institutional context of higher education, which present to them a replica of the outer social context, like the Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) students in India. Many of the facilities have been cornered by the well-off among them, leading to elite formation among SC/ST. Translated in terms of the conjecture of stress and academic self-concept, it appears that a larger percentage of SC/ST students despite having access to college continue to experience higher stress and have less positive academic self-concept.
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Psychological stress and its relationship with achievement of science students of Govt. aided schools
Page 131-133
Narendra Kumar Department of Education, S.G.P.G. College, Sarurpurkhurd, Meerut and Rajive Kumar Department of Education, N.A.S. College, Meerut

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This study attempts to assess the psychological stress and its relationship with achievement among senior secondary science students of Govt. Aided Schools. A sample of students was randomly selected from different Govt. Aided Schools of Meerut province. They were administered Psychological Stress Scale for Science Students developed by researcher itself which measures 12 dimensions of psychological stress. Results show that the stress dimension Examination and Achievement has been emerged as the major factor causing stress, while workload in science as the least causing factor for stress. Negative and significant correlation was observed between achievement and psychological stress dimension workload in science and communication problems and no significant relationship was observed between achievement and total psychological stress and its all dimensions.
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Psychosocial issues and interventions of cancer patients
Page 134-136
Asiya Gazanfar and Touseef Rizvi Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar

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The aim of the present paper is to highlight the psychosocial issues related to cancer and the interventions employed to improve the quality of life of cancer patients. There is considerable evidence that the wide range of surgical, chemotherapeutic and radiation therapies can leave permanent damage to organs and physiological functioning and disfigurement, across the different cancer diagnosis (Loesher et al., 1989). Psychological interventions are shown to be beneficial in cancer patients. There is a well-established body of evidence demonstrating that psychosocial interventions, viz., pain management, social support, psychotherapy, body image counseling etc. increase wellbeing, improve adjustment and coping and reduce distress in people affected by cancer (Carlson & Bultz, 2003; Cunningham, 2000; Meyer & Mark,1995; Rehse & Pukrop, 2003). The recent reviews also conclude that psychosocial interventions reduce depression, anxiety and functional impairment (Owen et al., 2001).
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Alcohol dependents: Their associated depression and pattern on Nahor Benson Test
Page 137-140
Thiyam Kiran Singh and P. N. Shukla Postgraduate Institute of Behavioural & Medical Sciences, Manopchar, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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Neuropsychology is the speciality of clinical psychology which deals with the study of brain behavior relationship. Clinical neuropsychology uses the principles and procedures of neuropsychology in clinical setting to understand brain related problems or clinical conditions to intervene into them, manage them and to rehabilitate persons suffering from such conditions (Sharma & Sinha, 2000). In this study 42 samples were collected and attempted to find out their associated depression and organic brain dysfunction in order to help alcohol dependents in improving their associated depression and organic brain dysfunction in the best possible way. The study was conducted at in patient department of Post Graduate Institute of Behavioural and Medical Sciences (PGIBAMS) using specially design socio-demographic and personal data sheets. The informations were gathered from alcohol dependents using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Nehor Benson Test to find out their depression and organic brain dysfunction. The result found that most of the alcohol dependents were having severe level of depression and organic brain dysfunction.
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A comparative study of locus of control among high and low performer teachers of government high schools of Delhi/NCR
Page 141-143
Sarita Boora Department of Psychology, M. D. University, Rohtak

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Locus of control refers to an individual's generalized expectations concerning where control over subsequent events resides. The performance of teachers and their achievement owes much to the locus of control (LOC) of the individual. This paper deals with such LOC among high and low performer teachers of govt. High schools of Delhi/NCR region. In order to conduct the study, the researcher purposively selected 200 respondents including both male and female teachers aged 25 and above. Extensive use of interview schedules alongwith the questionnaire was made to collect data which was subsequently analyzed and interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively. After discussion and elaboration, conclusion was arrived at in a convincing manner. The study revealed that high locus of control of female shows that student's achievement influence has more impact on their decision making ability as compared to male teachers.
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A study of adolescent mental health in relation to alienation
Page 144-146
Harprit Kaur and Diksha Sachdeva Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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Present investigation has examined the mental health of adolescents in relation to alienation. Total of 97 adolescents belonging to age range from 14 to 17 years were selected randomly from various schools of Patiala and Delhi for the study. Student Alienation Scale and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered after a rapport building session. The results obtained from ANOVA revealed that anxiety and depression were significantly related to alienation whereas somatic complaints and social dysfunction were insignificantly related.the detailed results and their implications are discussed in the paper.
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Sources of stress in first year medical students: A cross-sectional study at government medical college of Haryana
Page 147-148
Harish Kumar and Rajiv Gupta Department of Psychiatry, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Vivek Singh Malik and Sudha Chhabra Department of Anatomy, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Sonal Dogra Department of Pharmacology, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak and Satpal Department of Physiology, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak

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The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) course in India is demanding as far as students' efforts are concerned. Fear of failure, vast amount of content that has to be mastered, inability to cope with the high expectations of self, teachers, parents and peers' are commonly observed sources of stress. This study was conducted to observe the pattern/sources of stress in first year MBBS students at University of Health Sciences, Pt. B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak. A total of 135 students returned completed questionnaire pertaining to various academic and non-academic sources of stress. Work overload, poor accommodation/ living conditions and weak student-teacher relationship came out to be the major sources of stress. More comparative studies are required to further aour knowledge about pattern of stress among various universities/places and thus framing out possible explanations and mechanisms to deal with the same.
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Teacher professional pleasure in relation to teacher stress among engineering college lecturers
Page 149-153
T. J. M. S. Raju KPN College of Education Gantyada, Vizianagaram and N. Shadrack Dr. L. B. College of Education, Resapuvanipalem Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

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The present study focused on the relationship between teacher professional pleasure and teacher stress among Engineering College teachers in Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam Districts, Andhra Pradesh, India. Teacher professional pleasure is the enthusiastic relationship between the individual with his environment. Teacher stress can be viewed in a number of different ways and has been described as most in precise work in the scientific dictionary. The analysis of various definitions revealed that it is a response syndrome of negative effects like anger, anxiety or depression which threatens self esteem or well being, operate as a response of negative effect resulting an imbalance or discrepancy between the demands made and the ability to cope with them. So in both factors of teacher professional pleasure and teacher stress the individual factors like personal, intellectual, professional factors and the environmental factors like inter personal relations, class room situations and school atmosphere involving in teaching and learning profession. The data were collected from 159 Engineering college teachers working in 20 Engineering colleges in Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam Districts by using the 'Teacher professional measurement scale' previously developed and standardized by Rao (1998) and 'Stress creators in teaching scale' developed and standardised by Indira (1996). The data were analyzed by using the statistical procedures like means, standard deviations, critical ratio's values and r-values. The results were discussed according to the significant values obtained. Based on the results certain conclusions were drawn. On overall observation of the study, some implications were mentioned.
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Relevance of thought suppression experiments to clinical psychology
Page 154-156
K. Suneetha Department of Psychology, Andhra University, Andhra Pardesh

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This article presents research on thought suppression relevant to clinical psychology. Thought suppression is a process wherein individuals try not to think of an intrusive unwanted thought. After attempts to suppress the unwanted intrusive thoughts, is the individual really successful in sending them away from the consciousness? If yes, for how long? These are some of the questions being investigated in this relatively new but vibrant area of cognitive applied research. An answer to these questions is even more relevant for people suffering from psychopathology and those dealing with them. Thought suppression has now been implicated more or less as an etiological and/or maintaining factor for several disorders. In this article some of the counterproductive effects of thought suppression observed in experimental studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and stress disorders, depression, and phobias are discussed.
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General health and social support among male and female employees working in non-nationalized banks
Page 157-159
Sudha Katyal and Rajbir Kaur Dhillon Department of Human Development and Family Relations, Govt. Home. Science College, Chandigarh, Punjab

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The present investigation was conducted to get an insight into general health and social support among employees working in non-nationalized banks. The study was carried out in Chandigarh and its satellite towns-Panchkula and S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, on a sample of 200 male and female employees having minimum 1year of job experience from 5 non-nationalized banks (20 males and 20 females from each bank). Standardized tools were used to measure general health and social support. The findings revealed that female employees working in non-nationalized banks had poor level of general health, while male employees had average level of health in general. It was also found that both female and male employees working in non-nationalized banks had average followed by less number of social support from their families, colleagues and friends. Majority of them perceived average satisfaction with their social support.
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Adolescent reproductive health services through Anwesha clinic in West Bengal: Profile of beneficiary, reasons for visit, challenges and perceived solutions
Page 160-166
Sibnath Deb Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry and Chirasree Mitra Department of Applied Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The broad objective of the study was to understand the profile of the adolescents visiting the Anwesha Clinic, reasons for visit, and challenges in delivering the services. A group of 31 Anwesha (Adolescent) Clinic Counsellors was covered in the study. Data were collected using an in-depth interview guide and case study method. This apart, case study method was also adopted. So far as profile of the beneficiaries is concerned, beneficiaries mostly belonged to 10 to 19 years age group and above, came from poor socio-economical background and engaged in various daily wage earning jobs while some of the beneficiaries mostly males were also travelling to other cities and working as migrant labourers. Most of the adolescents were referred cases with common ailments like cold, cough, and fever. This apart, girls mostly visited the clinic with menstrual problems, white discharge, lower abdominal pain, unwanted pregnancy and anaemia while boys visited the clinic to clarify issues like masturbation, night fall and problems in relationships including phone sex. Some of the boys visited the clinic just for fun and to engage in casual conversation with the female counsellors. In general, follow up was very poor across the districts. The main problems faced by the counsellors were space problem for confidential counselling, negative attitude of the permanent staff at the centre towards the counsellors, who are contractual staff and lack of support from the authority. All the counsellors felt the need for intensive training for delivering effective services to the beneficiaries confidently. A number of steps are suggested towards effective delivery of services through Anwesha Clinic.
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Teenage depression and suicidal ideation
Page 167-169
Kailash Chandra Barmola and S.K. Srivastava Department of Psychology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, UK

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This is an attempt to study the depression and their consequences among teens. Depression is common in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. By age 18 years, as many as 25% of adolescents have had at least 1 depressive episode. Depressive disorders in children and teens increase the risk of illness, interpersonal problems, and psychosocial difficulties that persist long after the episode, and adolescents who experience depressive episodes have an increased risk of substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Suicidal ideation is an unpleasant symptom and indicator of emotional distress. Suicidal ideations-any self-reported thoughts of engaging in suicide-related behavior-are associated with suicidal plans and attempts. This is a theoretical paper which is originated from various research articles and reviews. There are various aspects related to it some of these are like risk-taking behaviour, differential effects of support providers on adolescents' mental health, compounding risks, addicted to novelty, etc. It may be concluded that education to prevent deliberate self-harm should be provided before students enter junior high school. However, attention needs to be paid to the fact that there were no differences in histories of suicidal ideation between 12 years old and those older than 13. It is also found that among the late teen students, females are more likely than males to report self-cutting, despite no difference in the prevalence of suicidal ideation. This contrasts with the finding that there are no gender differences in self-cutting among early teen students.
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Depression and well-being in women undergoing fertility treatment
Page 170-174
Preetha Menon and D. Sudha Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

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From a Test-tube Baby Centre, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 40 women undergoing infertility treatment were screened for depression and well-being using Case Study Schedule (2011), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1971) and Well-Being Index (WHO, 1998). Out of that, 35 women with moderate to severe depression and worst well-being were chosen to serve as the sample, by Purposive Sampling Method. Psychological intervention involving Relaxation Training coupled with Autosuggestions and Cognitive Restructuring (Natesan, 2004) and Visualization (White, 2004) were administered on the all subjects for six sessions. After psychological intervention, they were re-assessed for depression and well-being using Case Study Reassessment Schedule (2011), Beck Depression Inventory and Well-Being Index. Results revealed that the mean differences in depression and well- being before and after psychological intervention were statistically significant.
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Comparative study of academic performance and personality between students of KFI and non-KFI residential schools
Page 175-178
S. H. Kochargaonkar Department of Psychology Bhonsala Military College, Nashik Maharashtra and Pratibha M Chandak Department of Psychology Consulting Psychologist, Nashik, Maharashtra

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School plays a very important role in the academic development of children. The impact of school environment is seen in the academic performance as well as in the personality of the students. The present study analyses the performance of the residential students of Krishnamurthi Foundation India (KFI) and Non-KFI schools vis-à-vis their personality and academic dimensions. The sample population was selected from IXth and Xth standard students from two KFI schools and two non-KFI schools. The sample size was 155 for each category of schools. The data was analyzed by applying Mean, SD and t-test to compare the personality and academic performance of two groups of students. The biographical format and MDAPS were administered in a session of 45 to 50 minutes, to the students from each school. The results revealed a significant difference in the personality between the two studied groups. The mean values showed that the KFI school environment assists in the development of the students' personality. It was also concluded that, the KFI school environment and its unique pedagogy are best suited for the development of the students
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Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through the paths of spirituality: A review
Page 179-181
Md. Intekhab-Ur-Rahman University Department of Psychology, B. N. Mandal University, Madhepura, Bihar

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Parents are expected that their children learn through socialization processes to pay attention, control their impulses, and organize their behaviours so that they can accomplish long-term goals of their life. Some children have tremendous trouble learning these skills and they have diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children suffering from ADHD cannot pay attention or quell their hyperactivity, they do not learn the material they are being taught and thus perform below their intellectual capabilities. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is now the most widely diagnosed mental disorder of childhood. Many adults are now diagnosing themselves as having ADHD. Individuals with ADHD usually exhibit symptoms like hyperactivity, fidgeting behaviour, restlessness, excessive talking, inappropriate running and climbing, often ' on the go' , can't wait, interrupt others and impulsiveness. It is pointed out that ADHD is a product of the demands of modern life and its priorities. Patients with ADHD are commonly treated with stimulant drugs (Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate). The effects of stimulant drugs on the behaviour of ADHD patients are not as paradoxical as it might seem on the surface. Treatments with stimulants are short-term gains. Several studies have been included in the present paper which suggest that spiritual paths--- meditation, breathing exercises, physical exercises (Yogkriyas/Yoga practices), and practice of positive thinking make one physically and mentally better equipped to manage stress, improve balance and provide calmness to the mind. Spiritual therapy is more likely to lead to both short-term and long-term improvements. Spirituality also helps children/individuals learn to anticipate the consequences of their behaviours and make less impulsive choices about their behaviours.
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Effect of parents' marital satisfaction on the mental health of children in nuclear families
Page 182-184
N. Munirajamma Department of Psychology, S.P.W. Degree & P.G. College, Tirupati, A.P.

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A study was carried out on 90 students (8th, 9th & 10th class) and their parents to find out the effect of parents' marital satisfaction on the mental health of their children. Marital satisfaction of the parents' was assessed using “Marital Satisfaction Scale” developed by Prathyusha (1987) and Mental Health status of the children was assessed using “Mental Health Inventory” developed by Thorpe and Clark (1959). Results revealed that marital satisfaction of parents significantly affects the mental health status of their children. Children from nuclear families of parents with high marital satisfaction are mentally healthier than the children of parents with low marital satisfaction.
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Organizational culture and commitment at different hierarchical levels in manufacturing sector
Page 185-189
S. Subramanian and Kruthika J. Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

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Though the OD intervention strategies targeting at enhancing organizational culture and organizational commitment across all the levels of management are gaining much interest, the emergence of subculture at each level with in the same organization poses a greater challenge to HR professionals as it adversely affects the interpersonal effectiveness. Data obtained from 40 operators at the shop floor and 40 managerial staff of private enterprise which involves in manufacturing casting steels on two key factors-organizational culture and organizational commitment revealed that the operator category tend to exhibit high scores, significantly in the following dimensions of Organizational Culture viz confrontation, trust, authority, proaction and collaboration than the managerial staff. Similarly, the operators tend to have high levels of affective, continuance and normative commitment than the managerial staff. As the low levels operator category of employees, contrary to expectation, exhibit more organizational commitment and organizational culture than the managerial staff, the implications for designing suitable training interventions targeting at managerial staff are suggested.
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Evaluation of an HIV/AIDS program for adolescents
Page 190-192
Tejbeer Kaur Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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The present investigation evaluates the difference in awareness between the pre-tutorial and post-tutorial in adolescents. It assessed knowledge and sources of information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in a sample of 50 students using AIDS awareness test. The most common sources are television, newspaper, magazine and friends but they did not heard of AIDS from parents, teachers and doctors which could be an extremely effective medium to reach people. It revealed that the knowledge of and information about HIV/AIDS amongst the adolescents is grossly inadequate. It needs to undertake intensive health education efforts at school levels as this group is most vulnerable to get HIV infection due to lack of knowledge and misconception about the deadly virus. Implications for policy makers and educators are discussed.
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Some developmental issues related to quality of parent-infant relationship
Page 193-195
M. Pradhan and Kirti Madnani Department of Psychology Lucknow University, Lucknow

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The present paper examines the quality of relationship between parents and infant and its long term effects on infant's life. Empirical studies suggest that there are some developmental issues regarding above relationship. Feeling of trust, secure attachment and emotion regulation help infants in acquiring abilities to understand and control the experiences of outer world. This may subsequently affect his/her psychological well-being in later life. Infants need to develop a balance between trust and mistrust in forming intimate relationships. The more sensitive responsive and consistent care is provided by the parents the better inner trust will be developed for forming a solid foundation for later crucial periods of life. Another important issue is development of a secure attachment with parents. In this context Bowlby,s attachment theory postulates that with the, availability of parents, repeated interaction, emotional supportiveness, warmth and positive attitude of them, a secure attachment is established. There are some factors like baby's temperament, intergenerational transmission of attachment and emotional communication that may influence secure attachment. Infant's attachment with parents has long term effects in later well-being. Attachment security has been found to be strongly related to children's close friendship, resilience competency, communication skills, self confidence, self reliance in later years of life.
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Adult attachment style in relation to personality, and interpersonal relations among youth
Page 196-199
Hardeep Lal Joshi and Prem Poonam Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

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The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between Attachment Style, Personality and Interpersonal Relations among Indian youth. The sample for the study comprised of 409 youth (205 male and 204 female). The age of the sample range from 17 to 20 years with mean age of 18 years. Attachment Style Questionnaire, 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire and Interpersonal Relationship Scale were administered. The main objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between Attachment Style, Personality and Interpersonal Relations and to find out the predictors of Interpersonal Relations. To meet the objectives of the study, the data was subjected to Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results showed significant positive correlation between Attachment Style and Personality Factors, between Attachment Style and Interpersonal Relations and Personality and Interpersonal Relations. Multiple regression analysis found three predictors of Interpersonal Relations. Two of the predictors, i.e. TP and AN are from Personality and one i.e. CRTO from Attachment Style. The three predictors explain 15% of the total variance. It can be concluded that Attachment Style and Personality predicts Interpersonal Relations.
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Academic stress among adolescents in the twin cities of Andhra Pradesh
Page 200-205
Chava Nirmala Department of Psychology St. Ann's College of Education, Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh and M.V.R. Raju Department of Psychology Andhra University, Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

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Stress is universal human experience. Stress and strain are experienced by adolescents, especially students. The study is an attempt to find out the academic stress and anxiety among the students in twin cities of Andhra Pradesh. The total sample for the present study was 743 (male=373 and female=370). The Student Academic Stress Scale (1991) developed by Rajendran. and Kaliappan was used to gather the data. A demographic questionnaire developed by the researcher was also used. A quantitative survey method was employed using statistical procedures such as t-test and f-test. The findings of the study points out that there were significant influence and difference between the demographical variables like gender, type of school, medium, type of syllabus with Academic Stress. Based on the findings of the study a set of recommendations were formulated.
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Effects of gender and socioeconomic status on aggression among adolescents: A comparison of rating by self, parent, teacher and peer
Page 206-210
Sony P. Thomas and Veena Easvaradoss Department of Psychology, Women's Christian College, Chennai

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The study investigated the gender and socioeconomic status difference in physical, verbal and indirect aggression by self, parent, teacher, and peer rating among adolescents. Subjects, a total of 516 adolescents, were selected from three southern states Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu of India. MANOVA was used to analyze the interaction effect of gender and socioeconomic status on physical, verbal, and indirect aggression assessed by self, parents, teacher, and peer. There was no consistency between the different ratings. In contrast to earlier findings, boys were found to be directly as well as indirectly more aggressive than girls. Higher and lower middle socioeconomic groups are found to be more aggressive when compared to upper middle socioeconomic groups.
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Psychological influences in terrorism
Page 211-214
Ameen Abdulla and Baby Shari Department of Psychology, University of Calicut, Calicut

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Terrorism is a word that has long been associated with heinous and ruthless acts. The psychological causes of terrorism have been the topic of interest to researchers since the 1970's when they began trying to create psychological profiles of terrorists. Their task has been very strong and enduring battle, since most terrorists are not available for psychological testing. People, who found, drive or lead a group forward intellectually or strategically are likely to be different than those that follow. Studies report that many experience mild stress reactions and many develop clinically significant psychological problems. The psychology of a terrorist consists of terrorist motivation. Many join terrorist outfits out of boredom and desire to have an action packed adventure. Motivation plays an important role in making terrorists do various acts of ruthlessness. A psychopath cannot be a terrorist as they are unreliable, cannot be controlled and their actions are personal. Terrorists are fanatics as they are cool, logical planning individuals whose rewards are not merely financial but ideological and political. Suicide terrorists have a self destruction ideology which makes them highly dangerous. There are various psychological factors that are needed for conformity of a person to be a terrorist. According to Bandura (1990), there are four techniques that are used by terrorist outfits to separate themselves from the mainstream society. In most terrorist groups women are recruited in a highly sophisticated manner as women tend to more cool in tense situations. Lochte considered female terrorists to be stronger, dedicated and more ruthless in their work assigned to them. The paper theoretically will do a psychological analysis of terrorist behavior and how far psychological influences are being done to bring up a terrorist and also to utilize in their acts to the public.
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A study of academic achievement motivation and mental health among M.P.Ed. boys and girls
Page 215-216
Mayurdhvajsinh C. Jadeja Bilkha Arts Collage, Junagadh, Rajkot, Gujrat

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between M.P.Ed. Boys and Girls on Academic Achievement Motivation and Mental Health. The total sample consisted of 100 among 50 are boys and 50 are girls were selected to different collages in Rajkot (Gujarat) city. The research tool for Academic Achievement Motivation was measured by Sharma and Mental Health tool was measured by Bhatt and Gida were used to collect the data. Here 't' test was applied to check significance difference and 'r' was applied to check correlation. The finding of the study revealed that there was significance difference of Academic Achievement motivation among M.P.Ed. Boys and Girls. But there was no significance difference between M.ped Boys and Girls on Mental Health. The 'r' between Academic Achievement Motivation and Mental Health is 0.59. So we can say that it is normal correlation.
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Shall you do it voluntarily?: A behavioral approach to tourette's syndrome
Page 217-218
Roshan Lal Dewangan PGBIMS, Raipur, Chhatisgarh and Roy Prasanta K. IOP Kolkata, West Bangal

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Much success has not been achieved to treat Tourette Syndrome (TS) by conventional psychotherapies. Early success was observed using 'massive- practices' as explained by Yates (1958), but latter the method was not used widely or found variably unsuccessful. Azrin and Nunn (1973) reported higher rate of success for treating tics by 'habit rehearsal'. Taking account of theoretical model behind both techniques we made an attempt to treat a 17 years old boy suffering from this syndrome. Treatment result shows significant reduction of both motor and vocal tics within six weeks.
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Alcoholism and physical complications
Page 219-221
Sangeeta Saini Department of Biology, Govt. Sr. Sec. School, Gangwa, Hisar, Haryana and Nirmala Devi C. R. College of Education, Hisar, Haryana

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Alcohol abuse has been associated with diverse indicators of social malaise and disruption. Thousands of people die each year from medical complications of alcoholism such as, cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease and other medical conditions. Many pedestrian and driver fatalities on the roads are associated with excessive drinking. A significant number of murders and suicides are associated with alcoholism (Gangrade & Gupta, 1981). About one third of A mission to psychiatric unit in general hospitals represent alcoholism and drug abuse and substantial numbers of alcoholics ,are seen in psychiatric outpatient clinics. The problems are, therefore, enormous and only in recent years has there been any major effort to deal with alcoholism as disease rather than with numerous consequences. The present paper attempts to review physical complications associated with alcoholism.
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Assessment of bereavement reactions and psychological well-being among bereaving spouses as a function of gender and type of death
Page 222-229
Deepa P. Nagpal P. L. Army Navy Stores, Visakhaptnam, Andhra Pradesh

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The present study aims at assessing the bereavement reactions and psychological well-being of the bereaving spouses as a function of gender and type of death (natural/unnatural). The study was conducted on 45 samples, 16 being from Andhra Pradesh and the remaining 29 from Goa. Tools for data collection included the 8 State Questionnaire, The General Health Questionnaire 28, and Personal Data Sheet. Findings of the study indicate that a significant positive correlation exists among the variables. Nature of death was found to significantly impact the bereavement reactions as well as psychological well-being. Dimensions of guilt, regression, arousal, anxiety and insomnia, and somatic symptoms showed to be consistently significant. Further, adjustment to widowhood does change as a function of nature of death, with those in the unnatural death group showing greater mal-adjustment than the natural death group. Implications of the research highlight the need to provide immediate as well as sustained therapeutic interventions to the bereaving spouses.
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Impact of dark chocolate on mood behaviour of young women
Page 230-238
E. Kannan, Madhumitha Suresh and T. Jothimani PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore and G. Suresh Consultant Homeopath, Coimbatore

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Chocolate has been a household word for over a couple of centuries and has been considered as a favourite treat for people of all ages. It has got a lot of medicinal properties as well which have come forth to the world owing to studies by researchers across the world. To observe how controlled doses of dark chocolate influence mood behavior in young women. The study was conducted in two prominent Indian cities namely Coimbatore and Bangalore. The study population includes women in the age group of 20 to 35 years. Sixty (n = 60) young women were screened for study by using initial screening schedule. Of these 22 (n = 22) young women met inclusion criteria were consented to participate in the study. The personal data was obtained from the subjects and then they were administered with Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS) before after the supplementation of dark chocolate.The data analyzed using Chi Square test revealed that there is a significant difference on Fatigue – Inertia (χ = 26. 52**), Vigor – Activity (χ = 9. 97 **), Tension – Anxiety (χ = 26. 49**), Depression – Dejection (χ = 29.45**), Anger – Hostility (χ = 40. 2**), Confusion – Bewilderment (χ = 15. 45**) after the supplementation of dark chocolate for a period of 5 days. The dark Chocolate had a positive impact on mood behaviour of the subjects.
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Prevelance of depression and loneliness among adolescence
Page 239-241
Raminder Sidhu SBBSIET, Jalandhar, Punjab and Gurpreet Singh Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar

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The present study was designed to examine the prevalence of depression and loneliness among adolescence. This study would also aim to find out whether gender differences exist in depression and loneliness. The sample comprised of 230 females 230 males between the ages of 14 years. The convenience sample consisted of adolescents who were attending secondary and senior secondary schools in Jalandhar. Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used. Administration of test requires two sessions. In the first session, Beck Depression Scale was administered in the second session; revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Beck Depression Inventory and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale were scored for two measures pertaining to depression and loneliness. The analysis of the data was done by making use of following statistical techniques Descriptive Statistics, t- test of significance, Two way analysis of variance.
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Impact of mid-day meal scheme: A survey
Page 242-243
Poonam Rani, Yogesh Chander, Suman Dalal and Ritu Department of Education, BPS Mahila, University, Sonepat, Sat Pal Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak, Harish Kumar Department Psychiatry, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak and Sushil Kumar and Durga Sharma Lecturers

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Mid-day meal (MDM) is one of the initiatives that is the central and state government. MDM was started in order to protect our primary school children from malnutrition and other disease and thus providing opportunity for their proper growth and resulting in the improvement in their learning level so that a strong foundation of quality education and physical stamina is provided to the children. Study was Cross-sectional and participants were given a self-structured questionnaire. A sample of 40 teachers (20 rural and 20 urban) were selected from 20 government primary schools (10 urban and 10 rural) from five blocks of district Rohtak, Haryana. Percentage, simple proportion, Results indicated that mid day meal is a factor for attracting the students for admission (57%), there was increase in the daily attendance in the school (65%), and the there was a good response to stop the dropout rate (57%). Mid-Day Meal Scheme has an overall positive effect on education. The admission and attendance have increased in the schools. The school dropout rate has decreased. It is needed to change the thinking of teacher toward this scheme and remove the lacuna to make the mid-day meals scheme more effective, productive, purposeful and result oriented.
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Perceived workplace harassment dimensions, mental health status and job satisfaction of Provincial Armed Constabulary, civil police and traffic police
Page 244-248
Mahesh Kumar Maurya Department of Psychology, F.S.S. BHU, Varanasi, UP

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Police Psychology is also concerned with behavior understanding, explaining and ever predicting. Police Psychology is primarily interested in the analysis of behavior of policemen. The purpose of the study is to see the effect of Perceived workplace harassment on mental health status and job satisfaction among PAC, Civil Police and Traffic Police. Participants were 103 police constables from the police services in Uttar Pradesh. Among these, 39 participants were Provincial Armed Constabulary (PAC), 41 participants were civil police employees and 23 participants were Traffic Police. The measure of perceived workplace harassment is developed by Berdahl and Moore (2006). Among the mental health status dimensions, well-being was assessed on the dimensions of psychological distress (PD) and psychological wellbeing (PWB) (Heubeck & Neill, 2000). Job satisfaction was measured by 22 item scale adapted from the scale reported by Dantzker (1993). Three items were used for getting information about the participants' age, salary and number of years served in the police force. Results showed that among the demographic variables, there was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to salary, there were significant differences in the age and experience of the constables in the three types of police organizations. Results clearly indicated that ethnic harassment was significantly different among the three types of police constables. However, not-man-enough harassment, psychological wellbeing, psychological distress and job satisfaction were not significantly different among the three types of police constables. The findings from the study have clearly highlighted not-man-enough harassment and ethnic harassment has not significant predictors of job satisfaction among PAC, Civil Police and Traffic Police.
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Mental health issues in women
Page 249-254
Ravinder Yadav Department of Medical Records Govt. Medical College & Hospital 32, Chandigarh, Pallvi Aggarwal Department of Psychiatry Janta Hospital, Jalandhar and Jaspal Singh Department of Psychology Punjabi University, Patiala

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Mental health is a state of complete physical mental and social well being and not mercely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 2001B). Gender is the single strongest correlate of risk for different types of mental disorders. Despite the robustness of this correlation, "gender “itself is a proxy term for a complex of biological, behavioral, social and psychological variables and processes, which remain as yet incompletely understood, under the outline of appetite, aggression, exploration, sleep, energy, violence, stress, mood and their biological rhythms as they are deferentially regulated and dysregulated in males and females, in relation to mental disorders. Women tend to be less delight about life than men and this may make them more vulnerable to mental illnesses. Women tend to develop internalized symptoms, where problematic feelings are directed towards psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, suicide, the adaptations aspects of life, including access to resources, methods of copying, styles of interacting with others, self evaluation, spirituality and expectations of others, all these influence mental health either positively or negatively. The paper gives light on the mental health problem among women having the most important contribution to the global burden of disease and disability and core element of mental health promotion and their fruitful basis of broad spectrum approach. . We need to develop preventive strategies like adherence counseling, crisis intervention, psychological counseling social support and educational programs for awareness. The paper gives a brief overview of the disease and focuses on the behavior of women.
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Impact of counselling on depression and other behaviors amongst HIV/AIDS patients
Page 255-259
Sabira Khan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.

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AIDS is a chronic, life threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of counseling on depression and other behaviors manifesting psychological distress amongst HIV/AIDS patients. Beck's depression inventory (BDI) was administered to study depression. Stages of HIV infections were also used to facilitate clinical evaluation. Twenty persons with HIV/AIDS (16 men and 4 women) participated in the study. The subjects were administered BDI before counseling, and after counseling programme was completed, pre and post- counseling scores were compared. Certain behaviors like negative emotions, body postures, eye contact, hesitant and unnatural speech, and negative attitude towards others were observed systematically by the researcher and status of these behaviors at pre and post counseling stage was compared. It was found that at the post-counseling condition scores on depression were significantly lower. Marked improvement was also seen in behavioral symptoms of psychological distress.
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Psycho-cultural influences in honour killing
Page 260-262
Sandeep Singh Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana and Dalbir Saini District Social Welfare officer, Hisar, Haryana

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The present study was conducted on a sample of 400 respondents from the states of haryana, panjab, and delhi. A suvey questionnaire of 65 items was used to know the people opinions about the casuses of honor killing in north india. It has been observed in the findings that irrationale and negative attitude towards females, attaching prestigious tags to females, community pressures, attitude towards youth and intercaste marriage are some of the observations indicating their role in honor killing. The study reveals the role of cognitions and cultural influences in commiting the crime in the name of honour.
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A comparative study of value orientation of rural and urban parents
Page 263-265
V. N. Yadav Department of Psychology, Govt. College, Bhiwani, Subodh Kumar Rehabilitation Council of India, Delhi, Satish Kumar Department of Psychology, Vaish College, Bhiwani, Kuldeep Nara Department of Physical Edu. A. I. Jat H. M, College, Rohtak and Davender, Pratibha and Archana Govt. College, Bhiwani

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Values affect human behaviour and values are fundamental sources of meaningful way of reaction and response. Patterns of value orientation are the most crucial cultural determinant of mental and physical health. Cultures have cognitive, appreciative and moral value standards which are acquired by the actors living in these cultures. The current study was designed to examine value orientation of 25 urban and 25 rural parent couples. The age range of the sample was 40-50 years. The results were analyzed by using two way ANOVA and t-ratios. The results revealed significant mean differences between urban and rural parents with respect to different types of values. The study concluded that rural and urban parents differ in their value orientation.
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Temperament and character profiles in obsessive compulsive disorder
Page 266-271
Ranjana Tiwari and Adhaya Shanker Srivastava Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Medical Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and Daya Ram Central Institute of Psychiatry Ranchi, Jharkhand

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The present study attempts a comparison between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients with healthy normal controls using Temperament and Character Inventory as the measure of personality dimensions. Forty Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients, who met the criteria of DSM IV TR, and had 15 or above score on the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, were given Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Temperament and Character Inventory. A group of forty normal controls, who had a zero score on General Health Questionnaire-5, was also tested with the help of the above mentioned measures. The Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients and normal controls were matched in terms of their age and IQ as measured by Alexander Pass Along Performance Test of Intelligence. The findings revealed that the Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients had significantly higher score on Harm Avoidance, but significantly lower scores on self directedness and cooperativeness in comparison to healthy normal controls. Findings also revealed that the severity of Obsessive Compulsive symptoms predicted the severity of depression and low-self-directedness in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients.
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Impact of socialization on the status of women in India and need for remedial measures in the form of positive psychology
Page 272-274
Rakhi Mehta K. C. College, Mumbai

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The status of women in India in comparison to women worldwide is suppressed on account of the quality of socialization which is influenced by the patriarcichal society existing in India. This impacts the personality of Indian women which in turn effects their behaviour, attitudes and the quality of life which they lead which is filled with anxiety, ,introversion, subjugation, dependence etc to name a few. Therefore, the present research investigates the relationship between quality of socialization and its impact on the personality of Indian women in terms of the big five factors and its impact on life satisfaction and suggests positive psychology as a remedial measure for the betterment of life of Indian women.The study was conducted in Mumbai on women in the age group of 18 upwards, three questionnaires namely a self formulated socialization scale, NEO-FFI personality scale (Costa & Mc Crae, 1992) & life satisfaction scale (Ed Diener et al., 1985) were administered. Results found in the socialization scale women rated dependence, emphasis on outer appearance, obedience, self sacrifice in terms of one's time & career, protection of family honour, following religious rituals as the top features of their socialization process. In the personality scale women were found to be high on neuroticism, agreeableness, and moderate in extraversion, conscientiousness and low on openness. The rating for life satisfaction was also found to be low. A correlation study found a high and significant negative correlation between dependence and the openness trait & significant positive correlation between dependence and agreeableness trait, outer appearance & neuroticism trait and protection of family honour and neuroticism trait. As regarding life satisfaction it was found to have a significant negative correlation with outer appearance, protection of family honour and self sacrifice. Therefore there seems to be a definite impact of socialization on status of women and the need o
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Occupational stress and job satisfaction in high school teachers
Page 275-278
Rajesh Kumar and Babubhai Patel Psychologist, District Tobacco Control Cell Sabarkantha, Gujarat

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The relationships between job satisfaction and occupational stress were investigated as part of a larger study. The participants were the staff members of High schools selected through Randomize sampling. Three hundred and fifty six staff members from 100 High schools of Sabarkantha District of Gujarat state (India). There were nine job satisfaction and four occupational stress factors identified. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were utilized to investigate the hypothesized relationships. Moderate to strong correlations existed between most of the job satisfaction and occupational stress variables. However, multiple regressions revealed occupational stress to be the best predictor of only two job satisfaction variables. Occupational stress did, nevertheless explain considerable variance in other facets of job satisfaction. The results hold implications for school systems and school administrators.
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Influence of perceived quality of home environment and social intelligence on mental health amongst senior secondary school adolescents
Page 279-284
Mehmoodun Nisa and Naheed Nizami Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.

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The current study was designed to predict the influence of Perceived Quality of Home Environment and Social Intelligence on Mental Health amongst senior secondary school adolescents. For this purpose data was collected from a representative sample of 248 adolescents, age range 16-18 years (both male 124 and female 124) studying in class XIth & XIIth taken from different schools of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. All the participants completed the questionnaires namely- Home Environment Inventory developed by Misra (1983), Social Intelligence Scale by Chadha and Ganesan's (1986) and Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagdish and Srivastava (1985). After collection of data, in order to achieve the objectives of the study analysis was done by using Multiple Regression analysis step-wise and t-test. The results of the study revealed that home environment dimensions reward, conformity, protectiveness and nurturance emerged as significant predictors showed positive influence on positive self-evaluation, integration of personality and environmental competence dimensions of mental health. However, deprivation of privileges, punishment and social isolation (home environment dimensions) found to be the significant predictors showed negative influence on one of the dimension of mental health that is group oriented attitude. Also findings of multiple regression analysis revealed that social intelligence scale dimensions- sense of humors, patience and confidence emerged as significant predictors positively influence group oriented attitude among adolescents. Similarly sensitivity one of the dimensions of social intelligence emerged as significant predictor negatively influences some of the dimensions of mental health such as perception of reality, integration of personality and environmental competence. Further our study used t-test and the findings showed gender difference in terms of mental health that male group of adolescents have more better mental health as compared
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Age and personality as moderating the relationship between social support and mental health
Page 285-288
Saima Ambreen Department of Psychology University of Balochistan, Quetta, Mussarat Jabeen Khan Department of Psychology (WC) International Islamic University, Islamabad and Samia Aslam Foundation University Rawalpindi

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The present study was designed to find out the relationship between mental health and social support and moderating effect of age and personality. Mental Health Inventory (MHI; Khan, 2008), Provisions of Social Relations (Ayub, 2004) and translated Extrovert-Introvert subscale of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire- Revised (EPQ-R; Eysenck & Eysenck 1975) were used to explore the relationship. The research was carried out in two phases. Phase I was the translation of extrovert-Introvert subscale of Eysneck Personality Questionnaire- Revised (EPQ-R; Eysenck, 1975) into Urdu through priori (judgmental) approach. The pilot study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of scales to be utilized. The Alpha reliability coefficients were .77, .75 and .75 respectively for the three scales, which was quite satisfactory. In the main study sample of 100 men and women was selected and sub divided into five age groups (n=20 in each group). Results showed that there is significant relationship between mental health and social support. It also indicated that there were significant relationship between mental health, Ext-Int personality trait and age. Moderating effect of Ext-Int personality trait is much stronger and significant than the age that seems to play non-significant role between mental health and social support. Effects of some demographic variables were also explored like gender.
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Comparative study on emotional intelligence of graduate students of professional and non-professional courses
Page 289-294
Gurmail Kaur Department of Botany, Akal Degree College, Mastuana, Punjab and Agyajit Singh Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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Present communication deals with the use of Ekta's Emotional Intelligence Scale (EEIS) in order to compare the emotional intelligence (EI) between the professional and non-professional graduate students. EEIS measures five aspects of EI, viz., self-awareness, managing emotions, motivating oneself, empathy and handling relationships. Presently reported study reveals that no sex differences was observed on these five aspects of EI both in professional and non-professional students, however, differences were observed between such students in first three components of EI mentioned above while no differences were observed on last two components.
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Mental health among yogic and non-yogic practitioners
Page 295-297
Abu Sufiyan Zilli and Charli Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The present research investigation is aimed to make a comparative study of mental health among Yogic and Non-Yogic practitioners. It was hypothesized that Yogic practitioners would have better mental health as compared to Non-Yogic practitioners. The sample of the present investigation comprises (N = 100) respondents, 50 Yogic and 50 Non-Yogic practitioners. Yogic practitioners were selected from different yogic health centres. Non-yogic practitioners were selected from different part of life. The age of the respondents were found to be ranging in the case of both groups (yogic and non-yogic group) between 18-55 years. Mental Health of individuals was assessed by a highly standardlzed Mental Health Inventory (MHI) which was developed by Srivastava and Banerjee (1997). For analyzing the data and obtaining the appropriate results t-test was used. Statistical analysis revealed the significant differences between Yogic and Non-Yogic practitioners. Yogic practitioners were significantly higher on all dimensions of mental health as well as on overall mental health than Non-Yogic practitioners. It clearly implies that yogic exercises play a crucial role for developing mental health. These findings have been found highly sparkling to its nature.
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A study of death anxiety in gastrointestinal disorders
Page 298-299
Akancha Srivatsava Purvanchal University, Jaunpur

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The study was conducted on 100 patients. The patients were selected with co-operation from medical practitioner attached with government hospitals and private nursing home situated in Jaunpur city and its neighboring areas. The patients were randomly selected were administered Thakur Death Anxiety Scale developed by Thakur and Thakur (1984).Results reveal that gastrointestinal patients are much more death anxiety ridden as compared to their normal counterparts.
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Anxiety and depression among the unemployed youths
Page 300-301
Alpana Shalini Lalit Narayan Mithila University, Darbhanga , Bihar

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Unemployment is a complex, multidimensial construct involving not only non-employment but also seeking work and being available for work. Present study entitled "Anxiety and Depression among the Unemployed youths" aims to investigate the effect of unemployment on the mental health of the educated youths, particularly on their level of anxiety and depression. Sixty youths in the age range of 25-35 years from Madhubani district (Bihar) were purposively selected of which 30 were employed and 30 unemployed. They were measured on Sinha Anxiety scale and Beck Depression Inventory to measure their anxiety and depression respectively. The two groups were the compared on the anxiety and depression using the t-test.
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Exploring the dynamics of HIV risk perception: The role of HIV knowledge, impulsivity, and sexual sensation seeking behaviour
Page 302-304
Sandeep Singh and Sunil Saini Department of Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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The present study was conducted on a sample of 800 students with age range of (15 to 21). The basic objective of the study was to know the correlates of HIV risk perception among youth population. The tests of HIV Risk Perception (Singh & Saini, 2010). HIV Knowledge (Carey et al., 1997), Impulsivity (Barratt,1994), and Sexual Sensation Seeking (Kalichman et al., 1994) were used in the study. It has been observed in the findings that HIV risk perception is significantly correlated with the variables of HIV Knowledge (-.32), Impulsivity (.18), and Sexual sensation seeking Behaviour (. 22).
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Mental health among professional and non-professional students in India
Page 305-309
Matloob Ahmed Khan Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, Mahmoud Shirazi Department of Psychology University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran and Md. Jasimuddin Khan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India

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The aim of this study was to examine the mental health among professional and non-professional students. A total of 200 respondents were recruited from Aligarh Muslim University. Mental health was measured by 56 items in mental health inventory designed by Srivastava and Jagdish (1983). Independent t-test was used for analyzing the data. The result shows that independent t-test found significant difference at the mean scores of mental health among students (professional and non-professional) with consideration of course. The independent t-test found no significant difference at the mean scores of mental health among professional students with consideration of residence and gender whereas significant difference was found among non-professional students' mental health with consideration of residence but no significant difference in terms of gender. Early detection for indications of mental health problems and understanding factors contributing to stress among students would promote better understanding of mental health in future and findings suggest that should do more researches about students' mental health.
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Male differences among the normal and HIV infected patients on the sub-scales of mania, paranoia, and schizophrenia
Page 310-312
Naorem Binita Devi Department of Psychology, Mizoram University, Mizoram

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The main purpose of the current study is to examine the body about the differences between the normal and HIV-infected patients male as measured by Morey's (1991) personality assessment inventory on the sub-scales of Mania, Paranoia, and schizophrenia. The samples are included fifty normal people and fifty HIV-infected patients; are randomly selected from the Manipur. HIV-infected sample are those drug abuse (Heroin No. IV) and syringe sharing. Data are collected with the help of NGOs people working for the HIV-infected patients. For normal sample, data are collected from Kakching area, Manipur. All the selected subscales are activity level, grandiosity, irritability, resentment, hypervigilance, persecution, psychotic experiences, social detachment and thought disorder. Each items consists of eight items. It means the total items is seventy two. The present study is analyzed by finding out mean, standard deviation, t-test and sig. level( two-tailed) for both normal and HIV-infected patients. Results of the present study shows that the mean and standard deviation of grandiosity, resentment are more similar for both the samples. It means that they are slight non-significant differences between the both samples. But the findings also show that activity level, irritability, hypervigilance, persecution, psychotic experiences, social detachment, and thought disorder have significance differences for both the samples. It means that HIV-infected have significance difference on these above variables as compared to the Normal people.
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Construction of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder scale
Page 313-314
N. Jain and R. K. Gunthey Department of Psychology, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur

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Construction of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) was the aim of present research it consists of the categories, viz., Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity. 60 parents of ADHD children were approached in different special schools of Jodhpur district. Finally 40 parents were worked as sample because of dropouts. 62 items were selected containing the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity as mentioned in DSM-IV-TR. 56 items were taken after items analysis. Scoring- Never-0, Sometimes-1 and Often- 2 is done for three categories responses with maximum score 112. Test-retest reliability and Criterion related validity is worked out for all subscales as well as for total scores.
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Attitudinal influences in crime: A comparative study of low and high crime profile villages
Page 315-319
Sandeep Singh Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana and Sunil Saini Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare, Hisar, Haryana

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Everyday newspapers, magazines and media channels are full of news of robberies, kidnappings, rape and murders. Crime reports are especially broadcasting on news channels indicating that crime is everywhere and all efforts to thwart it seem to be failing. Despite all governmental rule and regulations, crime is at alarming stage all-around. Viewing police records in certain areas, it was found that there are some villages where crime rate is very low and in others it is very high. Reasons for committing a crime may include greed, anger, jealously, revenge, pride and now-a-days one more thing that is emerging is youths from high profile families do crime for entertainment and false recognition. Investigations have shown that youths engage in crime activities for excitement, admiration and rewards. School bullying, domestic violence, community violence, religious masscrace, strikes, etc. have made social thinkers, police administration, policy makers and social scientist to unearthen the root causes of such activities. The present study was conducted on a sample of 450 persons (75 from each village) covering the six villages (three low crime and three high crime profile villages) of district Hisar, Haryana. The data was collected randomly and no criteria were fixed. A survey questionnaire was used to assess the attitudinal aspects related to social acceptance of crime, attitude towards alcohol and drug abuse, police, politics, gambling, youth attitude towards crime. It has been observed in the findings that attitudinal influences potentially affect the crime proneness in rural areas.
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Feelings of competence amongst individuals experiencing different levels of anxiety sensitivity
Page 320-322
Sheeba Ali Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP

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Anxiety sensitivity which refers to a fear of anxiety sensations can be better understood if it is studied in relation to other relevant factors. The present research is concerned with studying anxiety sensitivity in the context of feelings of competence experienced by individuals. The sample comprised of 140 subjects, 70 males and 70 females. Anxiety was measured through The Reiss-Epstein-Gursky Anxiety Sensitivity Index scale (ASI) developed by Peterson and Reiss (1991), and competence through scale constructed by author (Khan, 2003). On the basis of score obtained, on anxiety sensitivity, three groups were formed, high anxiety sensitivity, moderate anxiety sensitivity, low anxiety sensitivity. Inter group comparisons revealed that subjects having high anxiety sensitivity are high on competence, when compared to low anxiety sensitivity subjects. Some differences in the two gender groups were also found.
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Depression spells doom: Alienating one from the environment and good health
Page 323-326
Shonali Sud, Akshita Sharma and Astha Badalia Department of Psychology, St. Bede's College, Shimla, H.P.

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The effect of environment and depression on health on N=30, (n=18, adults between 16-23 years and n=12, children between 9-15 years) subjects (bankers, administrators, academics and students) was undertaken in the urban areas of Shimla. Subjects responded to items on the Environment Awareness Scale (EAS-Cito-Arnhem,1994), depression (Goldberg Depression Questionnaire, Goldberg, 1993) and health habits (Nutrition and Exercise habits-Hindi, Chauhan & Sud, 2005), along with personal interviews for feedback regarding depression and its effect on health and disease. It was hypothesized, that as depression increases, health deteriorates, that youth between 16 and 23 years will show more depression as compared to children within the age 9 to 15 years and gender differences will emerge in terms of depression and health, regardless of age. Results support most of the hypotheses and indicate that due to depression there was a decrease in health habits although subjects irrespective of age and gender were conscious about protecting their environment. Furthermore it was observed that nutrition is an age/gender related factor. Interestingly, females showed significantly less concern for health, and it was seen that the older the person, the better were his nutrition and exercise habits. Depression appeared to be predominating in all subjects, environment awareness was prevalent and nutrition varied with age and gender. Exercise was not a popular activity among the subjects regardless of age and gender. More cross-sectional evidence is necessary on environment and exercise habits in curbing depression on larger samples and age groups, across cross sections of the Indian society
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A comparative study of frustration parents having mentally retarded children and parents having mentally normal children
Page 330-331
Geeta N. Lagadhir Shree Bosamia College, Jetpur, Gujarat

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The aim of the study was to compare the Frustration of Parents of Mentally Retarded and Mentally Normal Children. Comparison has been made between Frustration of mothers and fathers. Frustration of parents having Boy MR children and Girl MR children were also compared on their frustration. Frustration of parents was measured by 'Frustration Test' by Chauhan and Tiwari (1972). Mean and SD of Frustration scores of both the comparison groups were calculated and't' test has been employed to verify the retainability of the hypotheses. Results indicated high Frustration of parents of MR children. High Frustration of father of MR in comparison to parents having boys MR children. Some suggestions have been made to give support and help to these frustrated parents of MR children.
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Rheumatoid arthritis and women: Indian scenario
Page 332-335
Ravinder Yadav Department of Medical Records Govt. Medical College & Hospital 32,Chandigarh., Jaspal Singh Department of Psychology Punjabi University, Patiala and Pallvi Aggarwal Department of Psychiatry Janta Hospital, Jalandhar

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Rheumatoid arthritis, an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that occurs in about 1-2 % of the adult population, is an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system which normally protects the body from infection & disease attacks the joint tissues & is commonly associated with chronic inflammation of joints. There are many risk factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis & one of them is gender. Studies have reported that women are three times more likely than men to have rheumatoid arthritis & they have more severe rheumatoid arthritis symptoms than men. Preventing rheumatoid arthritis is better than trying to treat the pain and disability & the other things that come along with it like heart diseases & diabetes. In order to reduce joint stress, ideal body weight should be achieved & maintained as obesity stresses the musculoskeletal system Effective means for reducing stress on specific joints should be used. A diet rich in antioxidants is also recommended for the rheumatoid arthritis patients. The goal of medical care is not only to achieve long term survival but also to achieve the best possible psychological, social and spiritual wellbeing. With increased life expectancy of these patients, complication keep arising such as toxicities, hepatic involvement, psychiatric problems and psychological manifestations. these manifest as anxiety, nervousness, irritability, demanding attention, depression in RA patients. This paper emphasizes the fact that these patients may require something more than simple medical management and also psychological support. we need to develop preventive strategies like adherence counseling, crisis intervention ,psychological counseling and social support and educational programs for awareness .The paper gives a brief overview of the disease and focuses on the behavior of women with RA. We have described their psychological symptoms and strongly recommend psychological intervention as part of effective management plan.
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A study of locus of control and attitude towards morality upon psychological well being in criminals
Page 336-340
Shiv Kumar Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheswar University of Science & Technology Hisar

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The present study was designed to investigate the psychological well being in relation to locus of control and attitude towards morality. The study was conducted on 300 criminals of different type i.e 60 murder convict, 60 rape convict, 60 dowry convict, 60 robbery convict and 60 ndps act convict. Rotter's (1966) locus of control scale, Verma & Verma (1969) Psychological well being measure and Banerjee (1962) Attitude towards morality scale were used to collect the data. The results of the study reveal that psychological well have the significant effect on locus of control and attitude towards morality in criminals. Subjects with high attitude towards morality and internal locus of control score significantly high on psychological well being.
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Psychosocial acceptance by women for dresses of classical period of India in modern scenario
Page 341-342
O. P. Sharma, Ritu Gupta and Rahul Swami Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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In the present day world of wild flowery bush-shirts, it will be interesting to know that this wear of American origin has something in common with ancient apparel of India. Whereas in one period, leaves and grasses were matted and use to cover the body and in the other designs of leaves and grasses have come to be imprinted on cloth used in making a dress . From leaf and grass man progressed to bark and from that on two cloth. In the age of Valmiki all the three forms of the dress were in vogue. The flourishing textile industry of the country during the Ramayana period accounted for the wide variety of clothes.
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Digital media as a tool for advertising
Page 343-346
O.P. Sharma and Rahul Swami Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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The only constant thing in the world of business is CHANGE, and digital media is one of these changes that has taken over the other conventional forms of connecting people. A well-planned and tactful way of digital media advertising is certainly more effective when it comes to its survival and growth. With the business going global in every aspect, advertising is not limited to just one country. It is , therefore, highly recommended to adopt a better plan of advertising that proves to be more economical , hence, yield better results. A closer look around us makes mobile phones one of the most widely used digital communicators which enables us to advertise for the product using text through its short messaging service better known as SMS. SMS has been one of the most effective ways of digital advertising for the past ten years . With jobs to car loans , housing to travelling , almost every area of our lives is influenced by the digital media and SMS has been successful in delivering the idea of its sender. But with the increased usage of internet , we notice that over a period of time SMS has lost its existence in the market due to the cons that come along its pros. For instance , one might get a car's promotional offers when he is absolutely not in need of a car, one might be busy in a important meeting when the mobile signals the sudden arrival of a SMS , which turns up to be a garments advertisement , and so on. Each of us who use mobile phones can evaluate this situation on our own personal experience. With the arrival of new fast-track technological means , changes are bound to occur depending on the prevailing conditions making the advertiser's approach flexible towards its potential customers. When one form of media seems to be losing ground, we shift to another form. While digital media includes LEDs and LCDs and projected images found in various public and private environments, connecting to the internet enables the advertiser to update the digital signage
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Level of depression among old age
Page 347-350
H. J. Narke Department of Psychology, Baba Saheb Ambedkar Marathwada, University, Aurangabad and N. Jain Department of Psychology J N V University, Jodhpur

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Depression & mental health among old age people was worked out in this present research. It was hypothesized that old-old male will be having high level of depression as compare to young-old male. It is a co-relational type of study in which old age will work as independent variable and level of depression and mental health will work as depression variables. Hamilton Psychiatric Rating scale (1960) for depression and Mental Health Checklist (Kumar 1991) are used. 50 young old and 50 old-old male subjects were selected from Aurangabad district for present purpose. Findings confirmed hypothesis and revealed that young old males have less depression level and higher level of mental health as compared to old-old males.
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A comparative study of mental health of working people of Junagadh
Page 351-352
Geeta N. Lagadhir Shree Bosamia College, Jetpur, Gujarat

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The present study was to do the comparative study of mental health of people carrying working people. For the present study, 100 young people working in education and non-education field at Junagadh were taken as samples. It consist 25 men and 25 women working in education field and 25 men and 25 women working in non- education field. Thus, overall 50men and 50 women are taken as samples. t-test was applied to analyse the results and the results indicated that there is no significant difference between the mean of mental health of people working in education and non-education field. There is no significant difference between the mean of mental health of people working in education and non-education field in context of their sex discrimination. There is no significant difference between the mean of mental health of married and unmarried people.
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Cultural notion of depression in Nepal
Page 353-357
Usha Kiran Subba Department of Psychology and Philosophy, Trichandra College, Tribhuwan Univeristy, Kathmandu, Nepal

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The exploratory study of depression in Nepal is designed to examine the common perceptions of depression, its major causes, cultural attribution of depression and stigma attached to being depressed and health seeking behavior. This study focused on samples of 48 key informants from different geographical regions (mountain, hill, valley and plain). Focused group discussion was used to generate qualitative information. After content analysis of major opinions and attitudes elicited in the FGDS, ten notable themes were identified. They manifested local explanation and expression of depressive episodes, its causes and their own way of health seeking practices in the community. The results have implications for the delivery of culturally sensitive mental health services in different geographical regions in Nepal. Awareness of culturally appropriate terminology for depression is a useful way of bridging the gap between lay and biomedical models of illness and may help improve levels of recognition and treatment compliance.
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Inferiority, behaviour problems and adjustment in children of alcoholics
Page 358-361
Pushpaveni Department f Psychology Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore and N. S. Rohini Department of Psychology Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

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From Kasturba Gandhi Memorial De-addiction and Rehabilitation Research Centre, Coimbatore, one hundred and two children of alcoholics were screened for Inferiority, Behaviour Problems and Adjustment. Eighty-seven children having moderate and high level of inferiority, increased behaviour problems and poor adjustment were selected for the study. The age range of the sample was 13-20 years. Case Study Schedule (2011), Inferiority Questionnaire (Pati, 1976), Behavioural checklist (2011), Bell's Adjustment Inventory (Bell, 1934) were used to collect the data from the subjects. “Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)” was given all the subjects for 8 consecutive days. Subjects were re-assessed using the same tools with Case Study Reassessment Schedule (2011), after the administration of the REBT. The results indicated a significant reduction in their mean Inferiority, behaviour problems and a significant increase in Home, Social and Emotional adjustments, which could be attributed to the efficacy of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
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Inclusive education: A boon for children with special needs
Page 362-365
Deepika Vig and Jaskeerat Kaur Department of Human Development, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana

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India has earned a notorious global reputation for hypocritical piety and institutionalised neglect of the poor and disadvantaged. It has been estimated that 90 percent of India's estimated 40 million children aged 4-16 years with physical and mental disabilities are out of school and majority of them are out of schools not out of choice but because callous school managements and over-anxious parents of abled children in a travesty of humanity and social justice have consistently discouraged them from entering the nation's classrooms. Education is a fundamental human right of every child. Governments across the globe are deliberating on workable policies and practices to make education for all a reality within 2015. It is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities of all children. It's time that government agencies as well as mainstream institutions woke up to the reality that segregation of children is morally unjustifiable and a violation of human rights. Special schools are dead-ends for special needs children. They promote isolation, alienation and social exclusion. It is this dominant attitude of exclusion which needs to be changed to build harmonious and compassionate societies. The inclusion of disabled children into main-stream schools will inevitably result in their acceptance into society and also within their own families many of whom still hide away children with disabilities. If all children grow up together there is less likelihood of resistance towards and ostracism of the disabled.
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Inter personal relationship and emotional adjustment of teenage students
Page 366-370
K. G. Patel Department of Psychology, Idar Anjana Patidar H. K. M. Artsand P. N. Patel Commerce College, Idar

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Inter personal relationship has closely related to emotional adjustment of a teen aged students In this regard researcher tried to investigate the inter dependent effects of both variables. The researcher got 360 subjects as sample. The whole sample is selected for study by the randomize method. For the present study two instruments (Tests) namely Sociometric-Questionnaire and Bell Adjustment Inventory have been used. In order to derive the conclusions from the data gathered, statistical analysis has been undertaken such as: `F- test' " and LSD test Conclusions shoes that, The patterns of interpersonal relationship in urban and rural demographic area and Emotional adjustment are not interdependent. The patterns of interpersonal relationship in male and female sex difference and Emotional adjustment are mutually interdependent. The emotional adjustment of Male group is better than that of the Female group. The patterns of interpersonal relationship and Emotional adjustment are mutually interdependent. The Emotional Adjustment of Star group is better than that of the Isolate group and the Emotional adjustment of Isolate group is better than that of the Rejectee group.
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Inclusive education: A boon for children with special needs
Page 362-365
Deepika Vig and Jaskeerat Kaur Department of Human Development, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana

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India has earned a notorious global reputation for hypocritical piety and institutionalised neglect of the poor and disadvantaged. It has been estimated that 90 percent of India's estimated 40 million children aged 4-16 years with physical and mental disabilities are out of school and majority of them are out of schools not out of choice but because callous school managements and over-anxious parents of abled children in a travesty of humanity and social justice have consistently discouraged them from entering the nation's classrooms. Education is a fundamental human right of every child. Governments across the globe are deliberating on workable policies and practices to make education for all a reality within 2015. It is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities of all children. It's time that government agencies as well as mainstream institutions woke up to the reality that segregation of children is morally unjustifiable and a violation of human rights. Special schools are dead-ends for special needs children. They promote isolation, alienation and social exclusion. It is this dominant attitude of exclusion which needs to be changed to build harmonious and compassionate societies. The inclusion of disabled children into main-stream schools will inevitably result in their acceptance into society and also within their own families many of whom still hide away children with disabilities. If all children grow up together there is less likelihood of resistance towards and ostracism of the disabled.
hide
500 INR

Inclusive education: A boon for children with special needs
Page 362-365
Deepika Vig and Jaskeerat Kaur Department of Human Development, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana

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India has earned a notorious global reputation for hypocritical piety and institutionalised neglect of the poor and disadvantaged. It has been estimated that 90 percent of India's estimated 40 million children aged 4-16 years with physical and mental disabilities are out of school and majority of them are out of schools not out of choice but because callous school managements and over-anxious parents of abled children in a travesty of humanity and social justice have consistently discouraged them from entering the nation's classrooms. Education is a fundamental human right of every child. Governments across the globe are deliberating on workable policies and practices to make education for all a reality within 2015. It is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities of all children. It's time that government agencies as well as mainstream institutions woke up to the reality that segregation of children is morally unjustifiable and a violation of human rights. Special schools are dead-ends for special needs children. They promote isolation, alienation and social exclusion. It is this dominant attitude of exclusion which needs to be changed to build harmonious and compassionate societies. The inclusion of disabled children into main-stream schools will inevitably result in their acceptance into society and also within their own families many of whom still hide away children with disabilities. If all children grow up together there is less likelihood of resistance towards and ostracism of the disabled.
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500 INR

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