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International Journal of Education and Management Studies
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 2017(7), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

The relationship between collective endowment papers and the Iranian economy: Case of endowment and charity affairs organization
Page 81-84
Saeideh Rezaei, Department of Management Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran and Iman Jokar, Department of Management Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

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The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between bonds of mass devoted to Iran's macroeconomic indicators (including economic growth, employment, & investments) respectively. To achieve this aim, a questionnaire in relation to the three macro-economic variables include: 1. Economic growth 2. Unemployment 3. The investment was designed. To assess the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was approved by Cronbach's alpha coefficient has-been The rate for the entire questionnaire obtained 0.77 and this number is indicative of the extent appropriate and acceptable reliability. The population consisted of professors and economic elite, familiar with the field of endowment management and financial management and organization at the University endowments are in Fars Province This number has been estimated that about 58 people. Considering the population size of the sample using a sample of 50 people. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among all members of society, and finally 50 questionnaires (to the participants) were returned The sampling method in this research is available sampling method. To assess data normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the association of papers devoted to collective direction With macroeconomic indicators at 95% single sample t-test was used, The results revealed a significant positive correlation between bond is endowed with three macroeconomic variables. The bonds can be devoted to economic recovery in the variables of economic growth, unemployment and investment foundations.
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How to use new methods of financing in the field of endowment (Case study: Endowment & charity)
Page 85-88
Soheyla Motallebi and Iman Jokar, Department of Management, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the area dedicated to using innovative financing and economic development indicators. To achieve this goal, twenty-three-item questionnaire in relation to the seven macro-economic variables such as human capital, physical capital accumulation, reducing the government budget deficit, equitable distribution of wealth, productivity, elimination of poverty and social welfare was designed. Validity this questionnaire by five professors of economics and financial management training in the field of endowment was approved and Cronbach's alpha coefficient to measure the reliability of statistics used in this study consisted of professors and elite economic and financial management in the universities and the endowments were familiar with the area devoted to the research in the province according to population size (58), using a sample of 50samples were obtained. The sampling of samples were selected. To assess data normality Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to measure the direction of dedicated field communication using new financing macro-economic indicators of the one-sample t-test were used at a significance level of 5%, the results showed significant sphere endowed with modern methods of financing the macro-economic variable was seven. The area dedicated to using innovative financing methods can improve the economic variables, economic development, human capital, physical capital accumulation, reducing the government budget deficit, equitable distribution of wealth, productivity, and elimination of poverty and social welfare caupoverty cause accumulation of physical capital.
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Psychological and social impact of slum housing rehabilitation
Page 89-93
Rakhi Udainiya, Department of Psychology Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and Dinesh Nagar, Faculty of Social Sciences Barkatullah University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

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The major objective of the study was to analyze the impact of Government of India sponsored rehabilitation programme for poors. In the present study semi structured interview schedule was used to record the spontaneous reactions of three hundred and twenty respondents residing in squatter colonies and apartment complexes on various issues pertaining to their present housing conditions. The focus of interview was to understand the good and bad features of their present housing. The suggestions for improvement in their housing conditions were also noted down. Qualitative analysis was performed to analyze the results. The major results of content analysis revealed that a large majority of residents residing in squatter colonies reported the problems pertaining to unavailability of closed toilet, water logging in the rainy season and fear of dislocation, while major problems reported by respondents shifted in apartment complexes were related to substandard quality of construction which resulted in cracks, dampness on walls, insufficient space, chocking in pipelines, and financial burden of installments. Furthermore, with regard to good features the respondents of squatter colonies reported no financial burden, cohesive neighborhood and closeness to workplace. In contrast, respondents rehabilitated in the apartment complexes expressed happiness and stated that after rehabilitation from slum to apartment complex their fear of dislocation was permanently over, which was a big mental relief. The facilities of closed toilet and water supply were reported as additional good features. Various suggestions for improvement were given by the respondents. Finally, the results were explained with the framework of adaptation theory. Implications of the study were discussed.
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The mediating role of environmental performance the relationship between the value added intellectual capital whit financial performance and economic and market value
Page 94-97
Negar Hamidi and Ali Asghar Mashinchi Beshman, Department of Management, Marvdash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdash, Iran

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This study examined the relationship between the mediating role of environmental performance the relationship between the value added intellectual capital whit the financial performance and economic value and market. The target population included all employees of the Maskan Bank branches in the city of Shiraz the time of the study, 301 people have been based on Morgan table, and 168 employees were selected. Measuring devices in this study Inventory environmental performance (Forging & Martinez, 2006) Pulic's model (2000) to calculate the value added intellectual capital, Formula financial and formulation of economic and market value. The research is descriptive and correlational and non-random sampling method available. Validity questionnaire By content And its reliability by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, The validity and reliability of the variable and value added intellectual capital, The financial performance and economic value and market Dickey-Fuller unit root test is used That all cases have been confirmed. Data analysis using Likert scale (five-part) And Amos software 20 and spss, done. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the value added intellectual capital The financial performance and economic value And the market is through environmental performance. In addition to verifying the main hypothesis in this study All Subsidiary hypotheses were also approved. In any organization as value added intellectual capital is very valuable resource with that in mind in any organization and with the help of environmental performance leading to improve financial performance and finally create economic value and the market for the organization.
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The impact of knowledge management strategies and knowledge-oriented leadership on organizational performance through innovation in the manufacturing units of Bandar Abbas
Page 98-103
Navid Rajaei, Department of Management, Marvdasht Branch Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran and Seyed Mohammad Hosein Kamani, Department of Management Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

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The performance of an organization and its people depend on many factors such as knowledge management, Knowledge-Oriented leadership and innovation in the organization. This study examines the impact of knowledge management strategies and Knowledge-Oriented leadership on organizational performance with the mediating role of innovation by path analysis. This is an applied study and discriptive -correlation. The population consisted of 336 production units in Bandar Abbas when sample size was 179 managers of these units by Morgan formula. Standard questionnaires consisting of Knowledge-Oriented leadership, knowledge management strategies, innovation and organizational performance were used for data collection and to analyze the structural equation modeling LISREL software was used. The results generally indicated the significant effect of Knowledge-Oriented leadership and knowledge management strategies on organizational performance directly and indirectly (through innovation).
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Prediction power of burnout due to organizational culture and organizational silence (Case Study: Electricity distribution companies in Ahvaz)
Page 104-107
Abbas Asmar, Department of Management Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran and Fereshteh Mostafavi Rad, Department of Educational & Psychological Science Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran

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The burnout can defined as a reaction against chronic stress and the responding to pressures of work or organization. The main objective of this study is the concept of the causes and the effect relationship between two variables the organizational and the institutional silence on the phenomenon of the burnout among the managers and employees that are working in electricity distribution company Ahwaz. Because the burnout effects on all aspects of the people organizational life and reduce the operation and the quality of the people. This research is conducted among the employees and the managers of electricity distribution Ahwaz. To select the required sample is used of the census sampling and the statistical methods such as the standard deviation, the regression and the Pierson correlation coefficient. In this research is used of the Maslach burnout inventory questionnaire and the Denison's organizational culture questionnaire and the akvla's organizational silence. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by using the cronbache's alpha coefficient that is satisfactory and acceptable. The results also show that there are significant relationships between the burnout and the Denison's organizational culture and the vakval's organizational silence. Also the organizational silence has a direct relationship with the burnout and has a inverse relationship with the Denison's organizational culture. This means that with the increase of silence in system, the organizational culture is reduced and the burnout is increased. It is worth noting that the relationship is directing between the organizational culture and the burnout. So that the burnout is increased by increasing the organizational culture and the burnout is reduced by reducing the organizational culture.
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Foreign direct investment in India: An overview
Page 108-115
Devansh Gupta Symbiosis Law School, Pune, Maharashtra

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Foreign Direct Investment is an investment by a foreign Enterprise into any country other than its home country. FDI plays an important role in the growth and dynamics of a country. The development of a country depends upon the FDI inflow. FDI brings advancement in technology, increases production, increases capital inflow and introduces better managerial practices, etc. It also leads to export growth and industrial development. Small domestic enterprises also benefit from the incoming of FDI. India took its first step towards liberalization in 1991 after which FDI inflows increased substantially as compared to previous decades. This article talks about the inflow of FDI in India from 1981 to April 2016. This period has been divided into three sections- Pre-reform period (1981-1990) Post-reform period (1991-92, 2008-09) and the Recent period (April, 2010-2016). It shows the inflow of FDI and sectoral change in the FDI inflow during the pre-reform, post-reform and recent period. The various policy measures and steps taken by the government to increase FDI inflows in India during the post-reform period and government's recent policies and incentives being given to the foreign investors to increase FDI inflow is also a part of the article. The positive and negative impacts of FDI on India and its economy are also discussed in the paper.
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Construction and standardization of ergonomics knowledge test
Page 116-122
Kumkum Pandey and Deepa Vinay, Department of Family Resource Management College of Home Science, G.B.P.U.A. & T., Pantnagar, Uttrakhand

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Present investigation was done to test the knowledge of employees working in different industries. With this aim preliminary 140 items were collected and developed pertaining to the principles of ergonomics. Items which were nonspecific, redundant, vague and repetitive were rejected. This method led to a reduction of 74 items that means 66 items were discarded from the test. Thereafter content validity was done which also led to the reduction of items to 47. Again after getting the expert's opinion on the items of test index of item difficulty, index of item discrimination, index of item validity, point biserial and reliability were worked out. Finally ergonomic test contains 21 items where whole test was divided into three parts as work, worker and workplace. In work category there was 7 items, worker category contains 8 items and workplace category contains 6 items. To administer the knowledge test a respondent is given one mark for each correct answer and zero for each wrong answer. The total score of the respondents on all items of the test is taken on the basis of their knowledge score and the respondents may be categorized in to three groups having low, medium and high level of knowledge about ergonomic principles. Respondents who will score between 0-7 will be falls under the category of low level of ergonomics knowledge, followed by medium (8-14) and high level of knowledge (15-21) about ergonomics principles.
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Comparison of job satisfaction of managers based on selection method and demographic factors
Page 123-126
Shailja Rana, Department of Psychology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, Delhi and N. K. Chadha, Deparment of Psychology University of Delhi, Delhi

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Job Satisfaction has been the focus of study for several researchers. This paper aims to compare the job satisfaction of managers based on the selection method used to hire them in the organization. Further, an attempt has been made to compare the job satisfaction of managers based on their marital status, work experience an years of education. The sample used for the study includes managerial level employees working in private sector with 6 months to 2 years of work experience, in order to minimize practice effects. Brayfield and Rothe's Index of Overall Job Satisfaction (1951) has been used to measure the job satisfaction of the managers. The results of the investigation have been discussed.
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Role of traditional social institutions for inculcating values among children in the context of social change
Page 127-132
Habibullah Ansari, Division of Social Psychology, A N Sinha Institute of Social Studies, North-West Gandhi Maidan, Patna, Bihar

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There is a popular perception and apprehension that society is changing very fast and children are becoming more independent, outgoing, less respecting their elders, adopting the western cultures and by that way they are losing the Indian values. There is a debate among the social psychologists and sociologists about the nature and pace of social change and about erosion of Indian traditional values. Whether the Indian cultures, society and values are really changing or it is only media hype? However, there is an agreement among the majority of Indian social scientists that though there is a change in the fashion, technology, life styles, markets, education etc but the spirit of the Indian traditional values are still intact but there is a common doubt that whether it will be intact in future or not? Forces of social change such as globalisation, urbanisation, migration, higher education, employment etc. will impact the Indian values. Thus, there is need to protect and preserve the existing social institutions such as family, neighbourhoods, kinships, role of elderly and many institutionalised behavioural patterns such as respect and services to the elderly, parents, widows, disabled, unemployed etc in the society. This paper based on review of research, analyses the role of traditional social institutions for inculcating, preserving and strengthening values among the Indian children from the psychological point of view.
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Various educational platforms made by Rastriya Swamsewak Sangh (RSS) in India
Page 133-135
Ravindra Kumar Research Scholar, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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It is always a word in mostly is misunderstood in our society that what is their aim to misadvertise the work and role of RSS. It is said by those who have their motives in the politics. But in this article is going to introduce you what is RSS really doing to development for the society. I want to ask those people who always cities the RSS activity and compare with “Taliban, Bhagwa Atankwad,” etc. I want to say that in every sphere of life and social development of each and every activity in India Rastriya swam sevak Singh is playing a very important role to developing the nation. I am unable to define all the activity but I am trying to highlighting some of the “ sewa prakalp” (social development projects) which running in India. Patriotic activity and social, educational, intellectually making india for 90 years.
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Effect of gender and marital satisfaction on occupational stress of bank employees
Page 136-139
Varun Sharma, MBA (HR) Bharati Vidyapeeth University Pune, Maharashtra and R.P. Juyal, Department of Economcs N.A.S. College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh

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Marital satisfaction is an essential element for successful family life and personal growth. The fulfillment and positive development will be possible only when the relationship between couples is coherent and satisfactory. In a society like India, the active engagement of women in the employment sector and their dual role has significant correlation with the marital satisfaction. Different factors have significant influence on the occupational stress like marital satisfaction, personality of the partner, nature of job, child rearing responsibility, sexual satisfaction and communication patterns are some of the examples. The present study was based on 2x2 factorial design which has focused on the marital satisfaction and occupational stress. For this purpose 160 (80 male & 80 female) bank employees, from both private and government banks of western UP, have been selected for the study using purposive sampling procedure. Data collection was done by using questionnaires, which includes occupational stress scale and marital satisfaction scale. The obtained data were analyzed with ANOVA. Findings of this study indicated that level of marital satisfaction significantly influence the level of occupational stress, whereas gender does not seem to contribute in occupational stress. But the interaction of gender and marital satisfaction present a significant picture related to the word of work.
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Gender specific comparative study of the attitude of students towards SUPW at secondary school level in Delhi
Page 140-144
Nancy, JIMS, School of Education Jagannath University, Jhajjar, Haryana

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SUPW (Socially Useful Productive Work) is very close to the concept of basic education, given by Mahatma Gandhi, according to which education in and through work is important. SUPW is a prevocational subject at secondary school level that enables students to become self-reliant. But still the subject suffers from ineffective implementation as well as gender stereotypes constrain in the society. The choice of activities for SUPW is mostly different in case of boys and girls. The study clearly proves the prevalence of gender stereotypes in the mind-sets of students that is not only affecting their choice of vocations but also attitude towards the subject like SUPW. Repetitive and traditional activities performed under SUPW are making the subject very boring and burden on the students. Concept clarity about the real meaning of SUPW is required in students' .The roots of the subject need strengthening and improvisation by transformation of activities under it; to achieve the goal of work centred education and experiential learning irrespective of gender stereotypes.
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Combining financial statement analysis among low book-to-market stocks with momentum to enhance returns: Evidence from Indian stock mayrket
Page 145-149
Manpreet Kaur, Navdeep Aggarwal, and Mohit Gupta, Department of School of Business Studies, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab

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This study focused combining two popular investment strategies viz., financial statement analysis and momentum strategy with focus on low book-to-market stocks. In order for the result to be practically useful all sorts of transaction costs as well as the trade restrictions were duly incorporated. Using a combination of Mohanram (2005) and Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) framework among low book-to-market stocks, it was found that financial statement analysis helped identifying such stocks among low book-to-market stocks which produce significant excess returns across holding periods of 3, 6, and 12 months. On combining this strategy with pure momentum, significant improvement in returns were seen across 3 and 6 months formation period for all holding periods of 3, 6, and 12 months. Significant Jensen's Alpha figures corroborated these results. However, for 12 months formation period, the value addition by momentum declined and became negative for 12 months holding period. This shows a combination of financial statement analysis and momentum among low book-to-market stocks can bring significant improvement in returns; the results however are restricted to short formation periods only.
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Work-family conflict in Indian academic context
Page 150-153
Shayani Sengupta and Rama Shankar Yadav, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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This study aims to explore the understanding of the concept of work-family conflict among teachers in the Indian academic context. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate the meaning, antecedents and consequences of work-family conflict. Further, the roles of organizations, co-workers and government to reduce work-family conflict were also analyzed. A sample of 13 teachers from West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh was drawn. Content and thematic analyses of the responses were done. It was revealed from the interviews that the majority of the participants perceived work-family conflict as a state of misbalance between work and family domains. The major antecedents of work-family conflict include scarcity of time and mismatch of personal ambitions, expectations from others and role ambiguity. The major consequences of work-place are stress, discontentment, alienation from family and work, lack of work-life balance. The study ultimately suggests possible methods to reduce work family conflict at four level, Government level, organizational level, colleague level and self level.
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Attitude of professional college students towards value oriented education
Page 154-157
M. Rajendra Nath Babu and Lungsang Zeliang, Department of Education, Nagaland University, Kohima Campus, Nagaland

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Education as a social institution is a boon to humankind for prosperity, progress and peace. Value oriented education gives the virtuous inner motives and actions and the inner consciousness from which more actions emerge as outer actions in human life. Education with socialistic, humanistic values in the existing society is inseparable from value oriented education. The main purpose of the study is to know the attitude of professional college students towards value oriented education with respect to locality and management. The sample for the investigation which consisted of 320 professional college students in Y.S.R. Kadapa district was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Mean, SD, t-test were used to analyze the data. From the results it shows that locality has no significant influence and management has significant influence on the attitude of professional college students towards value oriented education.
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Leadership perceptions and its impact on teachers' work behaviour
Page 158-165
Shadma Absar, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi

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Leadership behaviour and effectiveness are influenced by how leadership is perceived by other social players, for example peers, superiors, followers or subordinates. The aim of the present study was to find perceptions of teachers about their department heads. 120 University teachers were selected randomly from a university in Delhi. Out which 40 teachers were selected each from social science, Basic Science and professional science courses. The Multi factor Leadership Questionnaire, Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment questionnaire were administered for measuring the perceived leadership style, work motivation and organizational Commitment of University teachers. The socio demographic information of participants was also collected. The results revealed that the university teachers perceived their heads' behaviour to be more oriented towards transformational leadership. The teachers of professional science courses perceive their heads as transformational leaders, in comparison to social science and basic science teachers. The perceived leadership style was found correlated significantly positively with the work motivation but not with organizational commitment. Leadership perceptions were found to influence work motivation more in comparison to organisational commitment
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Revisiting Gandhian thought in early childhood: An educational and philosophical perspective
Page 166-170
Swati Jain and Nimisha Kumar Centre for Early Childhood Development & Research, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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This paper attempts to take a brief overview of historical developments in education at the global as well as national level and in that context then aims to look at Gandhi's educational and philosophical views. The relation between Ahimsa, which is the cornerstone of Gandhi's philosophy, and well-being would be considered in keeping with Gandhi's views on education. Gandhi's philosophy of education aimed at transforming individuals to be responsible citizens who would contribute to the well-being of the society and also build individual character. The Gandhian model of social reconstruction aims at enhancing the character and overall development of individuals and nurture cultural development. One can conclude that the Gandhian perspective focuses on the holistic development of the individual by focusing on education as a basic fundamental right.
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More than just money: A literature review of non-financial rewards
Page 171-176
Sumangali Radhakrishnan, Department of Psychology, Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Motivating employees is one of the greatest issues concerning employers today. To succeed in today's globalised world, organisations require a competitive edge that can be provided only by a highly motivated workforce. Traditionally, managers have relied on the use of financial rewards to attract, motivate, and retain employees. However, in the past few years, attention has shifted to the use of non-financial rewards to engage employees and maximise organisational outcomes. This paper reviews writings that address non-financial rewards, its theoretical underpinnings and its relevance to the organisational outcomes. The review also summarises the different types of non-financial rewards under four categories, namely, learning and professional development opportunities, employee involvement programmes, rewards and recognition, and work-life balance aids. Implications for practitioners have been discussed.
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The shift of marketing to brand positioning: A view point
Page 177-179
Isha Narang, Department of Management Studies, Mittal School of Business, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Punjab

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The advertisements are going to be on very high heights, but some are good, some are annoying, some are simply waste, but the marketers are trying hard to be there in the market. The market condition shifting from old age to new age, production to sales, sales to new dimensions of marketing and in current era, it's going to be specific to positioning. So, this is the piece of theoretical aspect presented in the form of view point, indicating the previous condition of the marketing concept and distribution of the products, which has now transformed into positioning concept alone somehow. The aim of the view point is to provide the direction to the marketing researcher to explore the new marketing of the current era.
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Developing engaging learning environment
Page 180-183
Ramesh Sandhu, Department of Education, C. R. College of Education, Hisar, Haryana

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Engaging learning environment may be considered as the support system that creates such conditions in which students learn best. It caters to the unique learning needs of every student and develops social relationship for effective learning. Engaging learning environment consists of those structures, tools and community that inspire the learners to gain knowledge, skills and positive attitude which are required in this modern era. The objectives of this paper are to search the different components of engaging learning environment. There are several components of engaging learning environment, such as physical environment that support in developing effective learning environment, sharing of best practices among the teachers that help in enrichment of knowledge and skill, project based learning, effective use of modern technologies like electronic and online learning, social learning like group, peer and team interaction, international involvement in learning, both face to face and online. Thus, it can be concluded that learning environment must take into account the context that promote interaction and enable formal and informal learning. While different components like physical and temporal structure, tools, community and policy for learning have great impact on developing engaging leaning environment, however, their cumulative impact is much more powerful. In fact, effective learning environment is developed when these components get integrated into a seamless whole in which each component reinforces each other.
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The undying quest for intelligence
Page 184-186
Bani Narula, Department of Psychology, D.A.V College, Sector 10, Chandigarh

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This paper provides a comprehensive overview of Flynn Effect and its possible explanations in today's world. An underlying quest among all of us keeps emerging that are we really more smarter than our parents and grandparents. Flynn Effect proposes that people today are getting smarter at skills that are more important in our society today, particularly abstract thinking. In the past century, our society has progressed from being agricultural to being industrial and is now information-based. As our society has progressed, people have become better at thinking in abstract, scientific terms. However, environmental changes resulting from modernization such as more intellectually demanding work, greater use of technology and smaller families have meant that a much larger proportion of people are more accustomed to manipulating abstract concepts such as hypotheses and categories than a century ago.
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Strategies for quality enhancement in teacher education in Tripura
Page 187-190
Mun Mun Das Biswas, Department of Education Institute of Advanced Studies in Education Government of Tripura, Tripura, Hillol Mukherjee, Department of Psychology Institute of Advanced Studies in Education Government of Tripura, Tripura, and Binapani Saha, Department of Economics Institute of Advanced Studies in Education Government of Tripura, Tripura

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Quality is contextual. In the educational context, quality is seen as a complex issue as education is concerned with human being. Human Beings' overall quality is largely depended upon the quality of education provided to them. And it is the role of the teaching community to take up the responsibility to impart quality education among the students. For the prosperity and integrity of nation, quality of teacher education is then an important aspect and it cannot be ignored because teachers' teaching competencies or quality of teaching too is dependent on the quality of teacher education. In the name of development of education, for access to maximum, self-financing teacher education institutions are mushrooming now-a-days. In a small state like Tripura within a couple of years many institutions have come forward to offer Teacher Education but how far the quantitative expansion has been accompanied a qualitative increase in teacher education is actually a big question. This paper attempts to discuss the strategies for quality enhancement in teacher education that help in designing the program in order to respond to global challenges, ensure a quality outcome so as to serve students of this small state in a better manner.
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Cultural intelligence: Concepts and organisational implications
Page 191-196
Sumangali Radhakrishnan, Department of Psychology Jesus and Mary College University of Delhi, Delhi and Anavila Lochan Department of Applied Psychology Shyama Prasad Mukherji College University of Delhi, Delhi

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With the increasing pace of globalisation, the world is becoming smaller. It has become near impossible for human beings to live in the comfortable cocoons offered by their own communities, cultures, religions, and countries. Diversity in cultures and ethnicities often promote feelings of 'otherness' and misinterpretation of needs, values, intentions, and expectations of the other person resulting in disputes and subsequently aggrandizing feelings of hatred and contempt. Workplace settings are no exception to this. The present article reviews the concept of cultural intelligence and its implications in the organisational milieu. Right from negotiations to leadership, cultural intelligence has been found to be a critical skill, enhancing task performance and workplace adjustment in this multicultural environment.
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Peace and peace pedagogy: Contextualising peace education curriculum through Gandhian perspective
Page 197-201
Surbhi Kumar, Department of Psychology University of Delhi, Delhi and Anavila Lochan, Shyama Prasad Mukherji College University of Delhi, New Delhi

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Peace psychology is still an emerging domain on the larger sphere of psychology. The present paper tries to locate peace in psychology and education as it is gaining momentum in the research paradigm given the backdrop of increased violent and terrorist activities. Peace building and peacemaking are strategies that can be learned and thus including the concept of peace in the modern day pedagogical systems can prove to be very instrumental to come up with alternatives to conflicts at both individual and societal levels. We have further tried to evaluate and make some suggestions for peace education curriculum conceptualizing it in the Indian settings through a Gandhian perspective.
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Evaluation of websites of library and information science departments in North India
Page 202-206
Surender Kumar, School of Studies in Library & Information Science, Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh

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The study was conducted in eight universities of North-India zone on “evaluation of web page of library and information science departments with brilliant objectives. The primary data was collected from various web page of the university. Analysis revealed that fifty percent of the universities are provide information about departmental history on the websites and IT facilities. 100 percent universities provide information about the faculty members' name designation and qualifications followed by 75 percent universities providing information about Email IDs and phone numbers of the faculty members. Overwhelming majority of the universities provided the syllabus of BLISc followed by 62.5 percent MLISc and 33.3 percent course on the website, followed by 85.7 percent and 33.3 percent M. Phil.
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A sociological analysis on debt among small and marginal farmers of Southern region of Haryana
Page 207-210
Subhash Chander, Jatesh Kathpalia, and Vinod Kumari, Department of Sociology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana and V. P. Mehta, Department of Agriculture Economics, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Rural indebtedness has deep roots in the country. The mounting burden of rural debt has crippled the rural economy. Agricultural strategies are mainly related to farmers with large land holdings. The facilities are not accessible to small and marginal farmers. These conditions adversely affected the small and marginal farmers as they are vulnerable to crop losses and price fall. They take loan to fulfill their agricultural and non-agricultural needs. Therefore, the issue of farmers' indebtedness becomes a matter of intense debate for whole of the country and as well as for Haryana. In this background, the present study was conducted to assess the status of farmers' indebtedness in the Southern region of Haryana State in detail. The results of the study indicate that an average amount of loan of Rs. 162087.00 was taken by respondents from institutional sources and non-institutional (Rs. 67865.00) for the purpose of agricultural and non-agricultural needs. It was suggested that respondents should be motivated for taking loan from institutional sources of loan and encouraged to adopt crop insurance scheme.
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Social support status among adolescents in Haryana
Page 211-214
Rupika Chopra, Shakuntla Punia, and Santosh Sangwan, Department of Human Development and Family Studies I. C. College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Social support is a range of interpersonal relationships that have an impact on the individual's functioning and generally includes support satisfaction. The present study was undertaken on 460 adolescents, i.e., 113 adolescents studying in university and 347 adolescents studying in school of 11th and 12th standard from Hisar district of Haryana state from the age group of 16 to 17 years. Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) developed by Sarson et al. (1987) was used to assess the social support of adolescents. Results found that female adolescents received more social support in terms of quantity (SSQN) and were more satisfied than their counterparts. Results further exposed that the adolescents who joined extra coaching classes got more social support in terms of quantity (SSQN) from non family members also as compared to the adolescents who did not joined any extra coaching classes.
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Gender differences on dimensions of academic stress among adolescents
Page 215-218
Mohammad Akram, Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh and Mohd. Ilyas Khan, Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Stress is a part of life and has become an important issue in academic environment as well as in our culture. The primary goal of present study was to examine the gender differences on dimensions of academic stress among adolescents. Academic stress among adolescents has long been researched on, and researchers have identified different stressors. The study further tries to make an in depth investigation in each dimension of academic stress such as inadequate academic environment in college/university, lack of adjustment, apprehensive about future, poor administration and worries. Academic Stress questionnaire developed by Akram, Khan, and Baby (2013) was used to collect data in which 400 (200 male & 200 female) adolescents from senior secondary schools participated. In the present study, the findings indicate that male and female were significantly differed on overall academic stress while they were not differed on dimensions of academic stress.
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Parameters of evidence-based teaching practices in inclusive education
Page 219-221
Deepika, Department of Psychology, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Inclusion is a step further in main streaming as it presents a means "by which a school attempts to respond to all pupils as individuals by reconsidering and structuring its curricular organization and provision and allocating resources to enhance equality of opportunity to ALL. Through this process, the school builds its capacity to accept all pupils from the local community who wish to attend and in doing so reduces the need to exclude pupils".Leaner diversity means having student with different types of learning styles and needs. Diversity has many dimensions including significant individual and group differences in culture, ethnicity, gender, previous educational experiences, optimal modes of learning and groups of students with unique sorts of challenges as socio-economically disadvantaged, English language learners and students with disabilities. An evidence based practice can be defined as an instructional strategy, intervention or teaching program that has resulted in consistent positive results when experimentally tested (Mesibov & Shea, 2015; Simpson, 2009). Teaching practices also include the behavior management strategies. Present article is an endeavor, to emphasize the criteria and selecting the parameters of assessing how a strategy be considered as an evidence based for children with special needs in inclusion.
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Influence of mother employment status on the self-esteem of the children
Page 222-224
Jaishree Jain, Department of Psychology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The aim of present study is to compare the level of self-confidence of children of educated employed women (n=100) and children of educated unemployed women (n=100) who were administered a self-confidence inventory. Results showed significantly higher self confidence in children of working women as compared to children's of non-workingwomen's. Thus the results indicate a significant difference between the both groups.
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Capacity building through diversified floricultural agricultural activities among female entrepreneurs in rural Haryana
Page 225-228
Ritu, Lali Yadav, and S. Kaushik, Department of Extension Education and Communication Management Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Women constitute about half of the world population and represent more than 40.0 per cent of the global labour force, 43.0 per cent of the agricultural workforce. Female farmers receive 5.0 percent of all agricultural extension services worldwide. The rural women in most parts of the developing world carry a majority of the responsibilities for the production of food for household subsistence as well as for the market. They produce, gather, and process a wide variety of food and are found to play vital role in environmental management and development too. This paper intends to place a particular emphasis on the entrepreneurial attributes and relationship with independents variables and to enhance capacity building of women in diversified floricultural agriculture activities for entrepreneurship. Hisar district of Haryana was selected purposively having State Agriculture University and other State and Central institutions pertaining to agriculture and allied areas. A sample of 200 respondents was selected from four villages namely Mangali, Kaimri, Rawalwas, and Shapur. Results revealed that majority of the respondents reported high category for ability to motive other (57.5%), Self-confidence (55.0%), Skill competence (57.0%) and foresightedness (47.0%) for personal competencies, launching competencies, commitment competencies and managerial competencies, respectively.Significant gain in knowledge of the respondents was observed for all the ten components about floriculture diversified agricultural activities for capacity building of the respondents.
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Alternate education: Some experiences and reflections from the field
Page 229-231
Shama Norien Major, I.A.S.E, Faculty of Education, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Every generation pass on their skills and knowledge to the next generation for their survival, growth and development. Still there is an ever changing need and demand both from the individual as well as the society not just to acquire existing knowledge and skills but also to acquire new ones as our society is very dynamic and it keeps changing. Education is the only means to acquire existing and new skills and knowledge in order to meet the needs and demands of the ever changing world and society in which we live. Since these needs and demands of the society keep changing, it becomes difficult as well as not feasible for the formal system of education to fulfill all the demands through it. It becomes imperative to have an alternate system of education. Alternate system of education emerged sometime during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century to fulfill the existing gap and needs of the individuals as well as the society. These gaps and needs exist due to various reasons like the opportunities available in the main stream education system do not always cater to the needs of individuals from different socio-economic and cultural background, in terms of access to main-stream schools and also to individuals needs of learning style, class structure, teaching methods and evaluation. The teacher is the one who plays a crucial role in the actual transaction, execution and implementation of any educational programme; be it in the mainstream or in the alternative education set up. Teacher education owes the responsibility to prepare such well equipped professionals who could take up the instrumental role in the preparation of teachers who can contribute to different educational set ups. This paper is a case study of an educational institution situated in the city of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in India. The school conducts its classes using an alternative system of education and it also conducts innovative training practices, for in-service teachers, both for their own
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Financing of accounts receivables in MSMEs in Haryana
Page 232-235
Monika, Haryana School of Business, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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The paper mainly deals with the different factors of financing of accounts receivables in MSMEs in Haryana. This study presents the ranking of different financing options of account receivables at overall level and also according to the TOA (type of activity), FOO (form of organization) and SOF (size of firm). The primary data are collected through a descriptive questionnaire, which was structured. For the purpose of instant analysis, the respondents were asked to respond on the five point Likert scale. The finding shows that the entrepreneurs of the MSME firms mostly use the owned funds for financing the accounts receivables (1st rank), followed by the option to withstand 'securitization of accounts receivables' (2nd rank).
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Role of reflective teaching in professional development of teachers
Page 236-238
Ramesh Sandhu, Department of Education C. R. College of Education, Hisar, Haryana and Rakesh Sandhu, Dr. G D DAV College of Education for Women, Karnal, Haryana

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The main objective of this paper to forward the idea that teaching reflectively is not only an excellent endeavour but it inculcates self directed professional development of teachers. By employing the elements of reflective teaching in lectures and tutorials, a teacher can encourage the participation of students in classroom discussion, differentiated instruction and learning and collaboration with colleagues, It has been established that an attitude of self-directed inquiry combined with elements of reflective teaching enable professional development. In thin paper, three areas have been focused: (i) How to encourage the participation of students in chartroom discussion. (ii) Differentiated instruction and teaching and (iii) Collaboration with colleagues. This paper has also focused on self-directed professional development and its benefits for teachers. The teacher can build practical or work-related knowledge in the three areas of professional practice mentioned above.
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Perception, perceived utility and implications suggested by the farmers on Krishi Melas
Page 239-240
Ashok Kumar, Assistant Director (Extension Education) CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, Krishan Kumar, Joint Director (Extension) CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, Rajesh Kumar, DTP Operator, University Press CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, and Subhash Chander, Assistant Professor (Sociology), COA, Kaul CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Extension is one of the three major mandates of the CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar along with research and teaching. Krishi melas are major extension tool in transferring latest technologies to farming community for their overall welfare. It is gaining momentum over the years. A large amount of money and manpower has been involved in organizing this extension activity by the University twice every year (Rabi & Kharif). The study was conducted during Krishi melas (Rabi & Kharif) organized by Directorate of Extension Education, CCSHAU, Hisar at university campus during the year 2015-16. Randomly selected farmers (200 farmers) from the Krishi Melas were interview with the help of a well-structured interview schedule. About 17.5 per cent and 33 per cent of the respondents were fully satisfied and satisfied, respectively. Majority of the respondents (57.5 per cent) were willing to attend the next Krishi Melas. Most of the farmers suggested that latest high yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds should be available (61.50 per cent) and buzz session should be well planned with more duration (51 per cent). Many valuable suggestions were suggested by the farmers to enhance the utility of these melas as extension tool.
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Insights into college students perception towards cell phone advertisements
Page 241-245
Suman Ghalawat and Amita Girdhar, Department of Business Management CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana and Ruby Siwach, College of Dairy Science and Technology LUVAS, Hisar, Haryana

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Cell telephones are not the best medium of connecting with every other but have end up medium for social interaction and additionally on the sale-purchase activity. They have end up necessity of life and also popularity symbol for the teenagers. Agencies are also taking advantage by advertising and with the aid of supplying products and services via cell apps. The present paper investigates the factors related to the perception of college students towards mobile advertisements. The study is based on primary data collected from a sample of 250 respondents from colleges of Hisar district of Haryana state. Suitable statistical tools like factor analysis have been used to analyse the data. The factor component analysis reveals seven factors named as: quality of services, familiarity with advertisements, cost, adoption of mobile advertisements, services and privacy. Component analysis discloses that student's cognizance greater on quality of services, cost and adoption of mobile ads while subscribing to any service provider. Furthermore respondents also reveal that fee is likewise the crucial component whilst transferring to some other provider as college students wants less expensive call cost/sec in addition to initial subscription cost.
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Contemporary selection techniques in organizations
Page 246-250
Shailja Rana, Department of Psychology Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi, New Delhi and N. K. Chadha, Department of Psychology University of Delhi, New Delhi

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Selection in organizations has been an important and prominent issue since times immemorial. Though traditional methods of selection like interviews, competitive examinations, group discussions, curriculum vitae analysis, psychological tests etc. continue to be employed, a new trend to use online techniques of selection has begun. However, online technique of selection is quite new to India and very few research studies have been carried out in this field. This paper attempts to review the selection techniques being used in the contemporary period.
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Clouds over Egypt: Culture traits and organizational commitment in public education
Page 251-258
Mohamed Mousa, Estonian Business School, Tallinn, Estonia

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Over the last two decades, organizational culture has become a buzzword in today's business life. The concept reflects the main norms, customs, traditions and tactics that both senior and junior employees share. Hence, it has become a main determinant for organizational current objectives and future orientation. As organizational commitment determines all employees-employer ties, this concept has attracted much attention in both academic and practical management arenas. Accordingly, and by using quantitative analysis, this study explores the relationship between organizational culture traits and organizational commitment approaches in the context of public primary schools in Menoufia, Egypt. Correlation and regression results show a strong positive association between the culture traits and approaches of organizational commitment.
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Self-concept in relation to emotional intelligence of adolescent progeny of working and non-working women
Page 259-263
Neha Bishnoi, School of Education, Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh, Haryana

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Mothers, whether they are working or non-working have direct influence on their children. Mother's influence is a significant factor for inculcating habits. She indirectly helps in developing self-concept, level of aspiration, and academic performance. This paper examines to explore the role of working mothers and non working mothers in the self-concept and emotional intelligence of their children in adolescent period. It is hypothesized that there is no significant correlation between self-concept and emotional intelligence of adolescent progeny of working and non-working women. As this research was exploratory in nature, a quantitative approach was adopted. The participants of the study were 500 adolescent progeny of working and non-working women from five districts (i.e., Sriganganagar, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, Jaipur, Sikar) of Rajasthan. The tools used in the study for data collection were Self-Concept Questionnaire (SCQ) developed by Kumar Saraswat, Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory developed by Mangal and Shubhra Mangal. The findings revealed that Self-Concept and Emotional Intelligence of adolescent progeny of working and non-working women are positively correlated. Emotional Intelligence is a significant predictor of Self-Concept.
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Emotional Intelligence of Adolescent children in relation to their locus of control
Page 264-267
Amrinder Kaur, Desh Bhagat University Mandi Gobindgarh and Agyajit Singh, Department of Psychology (Retd.) Punjabi University, Patiala

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The study was conducted to measure the emotional intelligence and locus of control and their inter-relationship among adolescents. A comparison between male and female adolescents on the basis of emotional intelligence and locus of control was done. A sample of 400 adolescents (200 male, 200 female) adolescents were randomly selected. Mangal's emotional intelligence inventory and locus of control scale by Hasnain and Joshi were administered to the subjects, to measure the emotional intelligence as well as internal and external locus of control. It was found that females were having better emotional intelligence than the males; there was no difference between male and female on the variable of locus of control. Adolescents with high internal locus of control were having high emotional intelligence than the adolescents with external locus of control.
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