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IAHRW International Journal of Social Sciences Review
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 2017 (5), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Comparing coping resources for counseling center clients and non-counseling center clients
Page 93-97
Anita Sheerha and Mukta Singhvi, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The aim of the research is to compare the coping resources of counseling and non-counseling centre clients using the Coping Resources Inventory by Hammer and Marting (1983). It was administered on 96 college going students: 48 counseling seeking and 48 normal individuals. Coping resource inventory classify cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual/philosophical and physical resources that are currently available to individuals for managing stress. The scores are interpreted and discussed with two profile, that is, ipsative profile in which it was inferred that the participant scored highest on the emotional coping resource (35.2- 46.8) indicating that she is more likely to use this resource in order to deal with harsh or stressful situations, and the normative profile to compare the coping resources of counseling and non-counseling centre clients. It was found that Cognitive t(94) 7.0876, p<0.0001, Social t(94) = 9.2974, p<0.0001, Emotional t(94)= 6.1020, p<0.0001 and Spiritual t(94) = 3.3543, p<0.0001 were statistically significant. However, no significant difference was found on Physical Resources t (94) = 1.9430, p<0.0550. This reveals that both the groups utilize all the coping resources, except the Physical Resources, to deal with everyday stress and problems. Also, the scores of Indian and American counseling seeking individuals were compared. The results showed that the Indian group scored higher on the Cognitive, Spiritual and Physical coping resources as compared to the American group.
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Understanding the links between children's peer relationships and academic achievement
Page 98-102
Madhavi Menon, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, College of Psychology Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL

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Experiences with peers constitute an important developmental context for children within which children acquire a wide range of skills, attitudes, and experiences that influence their adaptation across the life span. Educational research has begun to explore the impact of children's sense of belonging in their classrooms and schools. Feelings of relatedness tapped by measures of school climate and quality of school relationships, have been linked to important academic outcome indices including academic achievement, academic self-efficacy, and school grades. This review paper explores the links between peer relations and school adjustment and subsequent academic achievement, with a special focus on the school adjustment and academic achievement of children as moderated by peer acceptance categorizations, i.e., popular, rejected, neglected, or victimized.
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Consumption of cyber pornography and loneliness
Page 103-106
Damanjit Sandhu and Gurveer Kaur, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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The aim of this study was find out if there is a significant relationship between cyber pornography consumption and loneliness. Data was collected from a sample of 300 adolescent pupils using two scales UCLA loneliness scale and Cyber Pornography Use Inventory (CPUI). Pearson Product Moment Correlation method was used to analyze the data. The results of this study revealed that there is a significant relationship between consumption of cyber pornography and loneliness among adolescent pupils.
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Psychological empowerment of working women's in government and private sectors
Page 107-109
Anjali Sharma, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Although empowering women seems to be the manifesto of every political or elective organization as well as its echo can also be seen as a major challenge of societal development and welfare of women who represent mark able space in every sector of life span. There is variety of schemes and plans which aims to bring reforms and changes towards women development. Despite of the fact, the sizable chunk of difference between women's actual state or self evaluation and their capacity of taking challenges can be noted which sometimes become more prevalent as a result of negative outcomes began to occur. Therefore, present study attempts to investigate the role of psychological empowerment of women in context of different type of organization where they work.
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Impact of gender and social support in adjustment of adolescents
Page 110-112
Sunita Asthana, Sri Agrasen Kanya Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhu Asthana, Former Principal & Associate Professor, Sri Agrasen Kanya Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and Sandhya Ojha, Department of Psychology Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The period of adolescence is marked by storm and stress. Most of the adolescent behaviour is influenced by the family, teachers, peers and environmental conditions. Adolescence stage of our life is very important as it faces so many changes. All changes affect students ability to perform in their study. The purpose of the study was to find out the impact of gender and social support on adjustment of adolescent students. This study was conducted on 500 adolescents (250 boys & 250 girls) studying 11th and 12th standards from different college of Varanasi city. Data were collected by P.G.I Social Support Scale and Adjustment Inventory, Vyaktitva Parakh Prashnavali. Mean, S.D. and F-test was used for the analysis of data. The results reported that significant difference was found between boys and girls students. In other words, we can say that boys are significantly better adjusted than girls. Gender has significant impact on adjustment of adolescent. Result further shows no significant impact of social support on adjustment.
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Review of personality, anxiety and adjustment of learning disabled children
Page 113-115
Jyoti Rathi and Kriti Vashishtha, Department of Psychology, Manipal University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Intelligence is the base of mental capacity, a set of abilities which help a person to learn, and perform accurately. Still there is category of children named 'Learning Disability' who have average or above average level of intelligence, but they cannot perform their tasks as quickly and accurately as others can do. The present study is an in depth study of reviews where researchers compared various personality traits, anxiety expressions and adjustment levels of learning disabled children in comparison to non impaired children. There have been researches from decades which found a significant difference in the self-concept, aggressiveness, anxiety levels (Margalit & Zak, 1984; Rodriguez & Routh, 1989) autonomy (Margalit & Shulman, 1986) and academic achievement of learning disabled children as compare to non-impaired children. Rani (1865) compared the personality traits of children with learning disabilities and normal school going children; and found that the personality profile of children with learning disability was significantly different from the normal children. There are studies that show contradicting results too. The present study deeply analyzed and discussed the work of various researchers who have worked on personality traits, anxiety and adjustment of learning disabled children.
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Psychological valuation of hate crimes: An analysis
Page 116-119
Shruti Sharma and Sonakshi Ruhela, Department of Psychology, Amity University, Dubai

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The present study is aimed at reviewing the phenomenon of hate crimes. The mental profile of perpetrators as well as the methodology of carrying out hate crimes is analysed and reviewed. Consistent patterns of troubled psyches of perpetrators are characterized by factors such as antisocial behavior as well as high levels of aggression. A huge deficit in cultural knowledge has been shown to lead to cultural bias and a higher incidence of hate crime-based violence. The study employs review of existing literature as its methodology. Results indicate a strong correlation between cultural ignorance, stereotypes and hate crimes. Childhood abuse and parenting troubles have also been shown to correlate strongly with psychological concerns in hate crime culprits. Interventions in the form of promotion of national values such as the right to free speech, as well as coming into direct contact with lesser-understood cultures greatly helps in reducing misconceptions and subsequently, in reducing hate crimes; as well as the course of future researches are appraised.
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Machiavellians among higher secondary school students in relation to aggression
Page 120-123
Karandeep Kaur, Department of Education and Community Service, Humanities Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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The purpose of this study was to examine machiavellianism and aggression among higher secondary school students. A sample of 174 higher secondary school students was selected randomly from various government and private schools of Ludhiana districts. The data was collected using hindi version of Mach IV scale by Rai and Gupta (1987) and aggression scale by Mathur and Bhatnagar (2004). The statistical techniques' such as descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way Annova and post-hoc test was used. The result highlighted that there was no significant mean difference in gender but significant mean difference was seen in family structure and streams in relation to Machiavellianism. Further also, there was no significant mean difference found in gender, family structure and streams in aggression but positive and significant correlation was found between Machiavellianism and aggression among higher secondary school students.
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Prediction power of burnout due to organizational culture and organizational silence (Case Study: Electricity distribution companies in Ahvaz)
Page 124-127
Abbas Asmar, Department of Management, Shiraz Branch Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran and Fereshteh Mostafavi Rad, Department of Educational & Psychological Science Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran

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The burnout can defined as a reaction against chronic stress and the responding to pressures of work or organization. The main objective of this study is the concept of the causes and the effect relationship between two variables the organizational and the institutional silence on the phenomenon of the burnout among the managers and employees that are working in electricity distribution company Ahwaz. Because the burnout effects on all aspects of the people organizational life and reduce the operation and the quality of the people. This research is conducted among the employees and the managers of electricity distribution Ahwaz. To select the required sample is used of the census sampling and the statistical methods such as the standard deviation, the regression and the Pierson correlation coefficient. In this research is used of the Maslach burnout inventory questionnaire and the Denison's organizational culture questionnaire and the akvla's organizational silence. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated by using the cronbache's alpha coefficient that is satisfactory and acceptable. The results also show that there are significant relationships between the burnout and the Denison's organizational culture and the vakval's organizational silence. Also the organizational silence has a direct relationship with the burnout and has a inverse relationship with the Denison's organizational culture. This means that with the increase of silence in system, the organizational culture is reduced and the burnout is increased. It is worth noting that the relationship is directing between the organizational culture and the burnout. So that the burnout is increased by increasing the organizational culture and the burnout is reduced by reducing the organizational culture.
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Family communication and adolescent risk taking behavior
Page 128-134
Veena Bhatt, Damanjit Sandhu, and Kirandeep Kaur, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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This paper highlights the role of family communication in adolescent risk-taking. Family communication is defined as the act of making information, ideas, thoughts and feelings known among members of a family unit. Family communication can range from poor to very effective. How family members communicate their thoughts and feelings, particularly at times when they are attempting to resolve a stressful problem or assist one another in achieving personal goals, is important in adolescents' ability to cope with stressful situations and their likelihood of involvement in health behaviours and risk taking. Parent-child communication is an effective way of reducing unhealthy behaviors in adolescents. Children who do not receive warmth or care from their parents and who have disturbed communication patterns are more likely to have lower self-esteem, academic problems, and emotional troubles. They are also more likely to indulge in various kinds of health risk behaviors for example, drug use, eating disorders and participation in risky sexual behaviors. Thus, family communication is viewed as a strong predictor of adolescents' involvement in health risk behaviours.
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Mindfulness and subjective well-being among adolescents
Page 135-139
Shruti Shourie, Department of Psychology, D.A.V. College, Sector-10 Affiliated to Punjab University, Chandigarh and Harshmeet Kaur, Department of Psychology Punjab University, Chandigarh

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The study examined the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being among adolescents. The sample size taken was 250 (125 boys & 125 girls).Statistical analysis included Pearson Product Moment correlation method using SPSS. The results revealed that mindfulness is significantly and positively correlated with subjective well-being.
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Classroom environment: A review
Page 140-144
Gouri Sharma, Department of Education, Pt. Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh

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Present study aimed to review the studies and research on classroom environment. Studies related to classroom environment were searched for different dimensions of classroom environment from 1980 onwards. A total of 30 studies concerning classroom environment were considered for the present research paper. In this study an attempt is made to survey the earlier works done in India and abroad. This study provides a review of the literature on classroom environment and will help to the researchers for further research work regarding classroom environment.
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Reciprocal altruism and psychological sources of will and its impact on military psychology
Page 145-147
Navin Kumar, Department of Psychology, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar College, University of Delhi, New Delhi

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The present paper aims to explore the concept of reciprocal altruism and it's interrelatedness with psychological Will power.it further aims to explore and highlight the implications of psychological will power on military Psychology. This paper also underscores the relevant concepts and implications from psychology research perspective. finally this paper emphasize the need for further research in this area of military Psychology.
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Emotional intelligence and personality: A correlational analysis
Page 148-153
Harprit Kaur and Aastha Verma, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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The present study was conducted to explore the link between emotional intelligence and personality. It also examined the relationship of basic socio-demographic data with personality and emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is a concept of huge importance in terms of understanding the emotional aspect of people and for enhancing their self-awareness, work life, and social relations. The study was conducted on the sample of 60 adults (37 Females & 23 Males) within the age range of 21 to 56 years. Data was collected using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & Myers, 1998) and Emotional Intelligence Test (Chadha & Singh, 2001). The statistical analysis used were the coefficient of correlation and student's t-test. The results indicated that T-F (Thinking-Feeling) dichotomy had a significant correlation with Emotional Sensitivity and Emotional Intelligence; E-I (Extraversion-Introversion) dichotomy had a significant correlation with Emotional Competency. Results also showed a significant relationship of age with S-N (Sensing-Intuition) dichotomy and Emotional Maturity. Gender differences were found to be non-significant in personality and emotional intelligence. Detailed results and their implications have been discussed in the paper.
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Cyber bullying among senior secondary school students: Nature and prevalence
Page 154-159
Damanjit Sandhu and Kirandeep Kaur, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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Background: In spite of the growing concern about the effects of cyber bullying on youth, to date only a few studies have investigated this phenomenon among secondary school samples. Consequently, very little is known about the nature of cyber bullying and its impacts on the secondary school students. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and nature of cyber bullying among a sample of secondary school students and also to determine whether significant differences existed between the mental and emotional health of cyber bullied and non-cyber bullied students. Method: A total of 357, 11th and 12th grade students in six schools completed the requisite measures. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and nature of cyber bullying and t-test was used to find the differences between the mental and emotional health of cyber bullied and non-cyber bullied students. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a substantial number of youth (52.10 %; n = 186) reported being cyber victimized, predominantly through social networking sites. Only 12 % of cyber victimized youth knew the identity of the perpetrator and almost 42 % reported that they did not tell anyone about the incident. Results also revealed that the cyber victimized youths reported significantly poor mental and emotional health in comparison to non cyber victimized youths. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest the need for developmentally appropriate prevention and intervention programs implemented at the secondary school level if efforts to address this growing complex problem have to be successful.
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Work-family conflict, psychological distress and well-being among Indian women: Moderating effect of social support
Page 160-166
Shashi Darolia, Department of Psychology University College, Kurukshetra and C. R. Darolia, Department of Psychology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

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The present study was conducted to explore the role of work-family conflict (WFC) and psychological distress in subjective well-being of working women in India. It was also aimed to examine the moderating effect of domain specific social support in detrimental impact of work-family conflict and psychological distress in subjective well-being. The study was conducted on a sample of 210 married working women in the age range of 30 to 45 years. The sample was drawn from various occupations like, Engineering, Teaching, Medical, Banking, Secretarial Assistance etc. All the selected participants received the measures of work-family conflict, psychological distress, subjective well-being, and social support. The results revealed that work-family conflict is bidirectional phenomenon, i.e., work interferes with family (WIF) and family interferes with work (FIW). Both WIF and FIW have shown negative association with subjective well-being, the correlation coefficients are -.40 (p<.001) and -.46 (p<.001), respectively. Work distress (r= -.44, p< .001) and family distress (r= -.64, p<.001) also correlate negatively with subjective well-being of working women. However, the two kinds of social support, viz. family support and organizational support have yielded positive correlation with subjective well-being, respective correlations are .56 (p< .001) and .30 (p<.001). The results of regression analyses have indicated that work-family conflict, psychological distress and social support accounted for about 48 percent of variance in well-being (R2= .69, p<.0001). Moderating effect of family and organizational support was examined through hierarchical multiple regression. Results suggest that organizational support serves as strong buffer (F=8.31, p<.01) against negative impact of work distress on well-being, however, the moderating effect of family support in respect of family distress was found to be non-significant (F=2.29, p= .13). Results were discussed in the light of pertinent
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Correlates of romantic relationship among young adults in India
Page 167-171
D. Barani Ganth, Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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The study aimed at understanding the variables associated with romantic relationship in unmarried youth. A sample of 453 students in the age range of 18-24 from two south Indian universities participated in the study. A survey was conducted among the participants using tools on personality, social influence on romantic relationship, interpersonal attraction, romantic inclination and socio-demographic and relationship status. Analysis of the data revealed that male students were more romantically inclined than female counterpart did. Students who had experienced a romantic relationship (Lovers) had more romantic inclination than those who had not experienced a relationship (Non-lovers). Lovers and non-lovers did not differ in their personality factors and interpersonal attraction. Lovers scored higher on media and peer group influence on romantic relationship than non-lovers. Romantic inclination was significantly related to personality factors, media and peer influences on romantic relationships and interpersonal attraction. Analysis of data using Structural Equation Modeling indicated that, personality, media influence and peer influence had a significant effect on romantic inclination. Romantic inclination in turn significantly predicted love status of youth.
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To compare merchant navy officers on job satisfaction, subjective well-being and stress
Page 172-174
Ankita, Department of Psychology Punjab University, Chandigarh and Akanksha Tripathi, Department of Psychology MCM DAV College for Women, Chandigarh

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The aim of the present study is to compare merchant navy officers on their Job satisfaction, Subjective well-being and Stress. The study was conducted on 300 merchant navy officers having 150 Deck and 150 Engine officers. For this purpose Generic Job satisfaction Scale (Macdonald & MacIntrye, 1997); Positive affect and Negative affect (Watson et al., 1988); satisfaction with life scale (Diener et al., 1985); and Perceived stress scale (Cohen et al., 1983) were used. Descriptive statistics and 2x2 ANOVA was used to analyse the data. The results show that Deck officers were found to be low on job satisfaction and subjective well-being, high on stress in comparison to engine officers.
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Depression and anxiety as correlates of internet addiction among adolescents
Page 175-179
Ranjana and Nandini Moudgil, Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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The internet is extensively used by adolescents today and excessive use has been found to have adverse consequences. Young (1996) has defined problematic Internet-using behavior as 'Internet addiction'. Internet addiction is characterized by 'difficulty in real life due to internet over-use', 'excessive time spent on the internet or replacement of genuine real relationships with superficial virtual ones' or 'weakness in self-control about internet use and if withdrawn, falling in psychological confusion. Internet addiction has been reported to be associated with depression and anxiety. Anxiety is a mental health constructs and brain response that warns of danger and prepares for upcoming challenges. On the one hand, it can act as motivational construct to take actions and on the other hand, it can act as an escapism mechanism. Depression involves persistent sad mood and hopelessness or loss of interest or pleasure in life .The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction with anxiety and depression and to study the gender differences, among adolescents. The participants comprised of 85 students belonging to the age range of 14 to 16 yrs, from various educational institutions in Haryana. Internet addiction test (Young, 1998) was used to assess internet addiction level of the sample selected. BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) was used to assess level of depression among adolescents. To assess anxiety, State trait anxiety inventory (Speilberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene,1983) was used. Pearson product moment correlation and t-test were used to analyze the data. It was found that depression and anxiety correlate well with internet addiction. T-test revealed significant differences between girls and boys on internet addiction and depression.
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Impact of financial difficulties on mental health among research students of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Page 180-184
Komila Parthi, Department of Psychology DAV College, Sector-10, Chandigarh and Shilpa Singh Rohilla, Department of Psychology Punjab University, Chandigarh

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Mental health is one of the determining factors of student life which plays a vital role in achieving desirable goals for better future. In higher education, mental health becomes vulnerable because of the demanding nature of academia. A doctorate is one of the highest degrees one can achieve in the field of education. In research, financial difficulty acts as a major contributory factor for the poor mental health of research students. Research needs financial support to be carried out smoothly and fruitfully. Therefore, fellowships provided by universities or other research promoting institutions act as a support system to research students, lack of which results in interruptions in progress of research work which may cause mental health issues among researchers. Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the impact of financial difficulty on mental health among research students of Punjab University Chandigarh, India. For this purpose, a sample consisting of 120 research students was randomly selected from various faculties of Punjab University Chandigarh, India. The research students were equally categorized into fellowship holder and non-fellowship holder groups. An equal number of male and female research students were included under each category (30 males & 30 female) with age ranging between 23-30 years. GHQ-12 (Goldberg & Williams, 1988); Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988); Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1996); and Hamilton anxiety rating scale (Hamilton, 1959) were the tools used to assess mental health, stress, depression, and anxiety respectively.
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Involvement of rural school going children in agricultural activities: Causes and problems
Page 185-188
Simarjeet Kaur, Sugandha Asgola, and Sukhminder Kaur, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab

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The present study was undertaken in one block of Sangrur district on a sample consisting of 160 (10-14 years old) rural school going children (both boys & girls) engaged in agricultural labour. A Personal Information Sheet was used to assess the demographic profile of the children and a self structured Interview Schedule was used to determine the causes of participation by the children in agricultural activities and problems experienced by them at work and school. Various causes revealed by both girls and boys (100.00%) for their involvement in the agricultural related activities were to earn the livelihood and to carry on their family occupation. Children faced various problems at school and at work due to their involvement in agricultural activities. Most of the boys (97.80%) and girls (75.00%) were unable to cope up with studies due to their engagement in agricultural activities. Boys were found to be having more short of attendance and lack of understanding in school compared to girls. Significant differences were observed in the punishment experienced by both boys and girls at school and boys were more punished physically. Long and no fixed working hours were found to be major problems experienced by both boys and girls at work.
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Haryana as a manufacturing hub
Page 189-193
Sonam Jakhar, Department of Economics, Chaudhary Bansi Lal University, Bhiwani, Haryana

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Haryana, a state earlier known for its agriculture production has transformed now to a state known for well rounded development. The trajectory of state's growth and development has been progressive since its formation. It has set the example for achievement of significant landmark in its strive as a hub for industrial products evident from the fact that Haryana today is a major manufacturer of passenger cars, motorcycles, tractors, bicycles, refrigerators and scientific instruments. Manufacturing refers to the process of converting raw material into finished goods for use or sale on a large scale with the help of mainly labor and machines. This paper aims at studying the manufacturing status of Haryana, and its contribution to the Gross State Domestic Production (GSDP). There are many manufacturing units in Haryana which help to increase production, employment opportunities and state contribution to India's GDP. Although, the economy of Haryana is mainly agriculture based but still its manufacturing sector plays a prominent role in promoting the growth rate of the state.
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Impact of hope and resilience on occupational stress of informational technology professionals
Page 194-196
Ajitha Eswaramangalam Ayyappan, Maharani's Science College for Women, Bangalore and Pramod R. Shivcharan, Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharward

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Psychological capital with components of hope, and resilience has recently emerged as a core construct in bringing positive psychology to the work place. Keeping these views as a scope for positive psychology research, this study sought to provide a comprehensive investigation of the impact of positive psychology variables of hope and resilience on occupational stress of information technology professionals. The data was collected from a sample of 100 information technology professionals from different software companies in Bangalore. A purposive sampling method was used for the study. The data were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The results showed that there is an impact of hope and resilience on occupational stress of information technology professionals. The study reveals that people with high hope and resilience experience less occupational stress. The positive constructs like hope and resilience play major roles in predicting organizational behavior and its outcomes
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Self-perception of the female sex workers
Page 197-201
Archana Shukla and Nitya Yadav, Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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The current study cast a glance on the self perception of the female sex workers. 50 sex workers aged 20 to 45 were purposively selected from the NGO in Lucknow. To assess the self perception of the FSWs the semi projective technique WHO AM I? Arkoff (1989) was used. Results depicted that the self perception of FSWs was poor and negatively laden by others perception and feeling of helplessness was overriding.
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A comparative study of cognitive ability and learning strategies of adolescents with different levels of academic achievementg
Page 202-208
Nidhi Singhi and Gurminder Sokhey, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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The present investigation is an attempt to explore reasons for better academic performance by comparing the cognitive ability and learning strategies of adolescents with different levels of academic achievement. The sample comprised 480 students classified into 160 each for high, moderate and low achievers. Each group was further divided into 80 males and 80 females for high, moderate and low achievers in the age range of 16-19 years, studying in 10th, 11th and 12th class. The criteria for assessing their academic achievement was based on the average academic score for the last two years. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1981) and Revised Two-Factor Study Process Questionnaire (Biggs et al., 2001) were administered to assess student's cognitive ability and learning strategies respectively. A 2X3 factorial design with equal numbers was applied with two levels of gender and three levels of achievement (high, moderate, & low). The results revealed that high achievers scored higher on cognitive ability than moderate and low achievers. Also, high achievers practiced more deep approach whereas low achievers use surface approach while learning. Probing the gender differences on cognitive ability, significant differences were more prominent in the low category with males obtaining higher score than females. Results on learning strategies revealed that in case of high achievers, females practiced more deep learning approach than males. While, surface approach was least applied by high female achievers.
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Alcoholism in girls: A theoretical framework
Page 209-212
Sangeeta Trama and Omna, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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Drinking by college-aged students remains a major issue. Results of recent research that have demonstrated that brain development continues well into early adulthood and that alcohol consumption can interfere with such development (Room, Babor, & Rehm, 2005; Murray & Lopez, 1997) indicate that alcohol use by youth is an even greater pediatric health concern. Studies done in the late 1970s and early 1980s found that 12.7% of high school students, 32.6% of university students, and 31.6% of young non-students consumed alcohol. In India, with special reference to Punjab, girls are into alcoholism. Going to clubs, discs etc. have become a trend among young girls. Drinking and partying provides a false sense of liberation and empowerment. In addition, research shows that having male friends increases the risk of alcohol use; spending time with boys makes girls feel more comfortable with sensation seeking and contributes to more adult-like precocious behavior. Girls find that alcohol has a disinhibiting effect that enhances their perception of being more confident, increases social comfort, and offers feelings of being sexually alluring. Moreover, for many college age girls, living on campus is often their first time away from home without constant supervision. Many girls take on drinking because they are separated from previous support systems and have new peers they are trying to impress. Young adult girls are facing forceful drinking due to their relationship partner demands to be like this. Thus present paper reflects upon the issue of alcoholism in girls and the factors that may lead to alcoholism.
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Academics and boredom proneness
Page 213-216
Komila Parthi and Radhika Gupta, Department of Psychology, Punjab University, Chandigarh

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Boredom has been defined as ''a state of weariness or ennui resulting from a lack of engagement with stimuli in the environment” (Vanden-Bos, 2007). Research suggests that students bring a variety of positive and negative emotions to classroom such as pride, enjoyment, anxiety, anger and boredom (Goetz, Frenzel, Hall, & Pekrun, 2007). These emotions interplay with the students emotions to impact their attention and performance. Despite being so important, studies in this field lack in exclusively focusing on academic domains (Goetz, Ludtke, Nett, Keller, & Lipnevich, 2013). In light of this, the present study aims to investigate boredom proneness, academic boredom, and mood awareness across Arts and Commerce students. For this purpose, 120 students were randomly selected from various departments of DAV college, Chandigarh. Of the 120 students, 60 students were from Arts department and 60 were from Commerce department. The data were collected with a set of questionnaires composed of a demographic form and three research instruments: Boredom Proneness Scale (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986); Academic Boredom Scale (Acee et al., 2010); and Mood Awareness Scale (Swinkels et al., 1995). The results indicate significant differences between Commerce and Arts students for boredom proneness, academic boredom and mood labelling. Similarly, significant correlations were observed among the variables under study. Future research suggestions and implications have been discussed.
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To see the level of anxiety in person's having skin disease
Page 217-220
Shama Hamdani, Clinical Psychologist NMHP Sparsh Clinic District Hospital, Durg, Chhatisgarh, Ashok parasar, Clinical Psychologist District hospital, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, and Deapti Mishra, Post Graduate Insitute of Behavioural & Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhatisgarh

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The aim of the present study is to see the level of anxiety in peson's having skin disease. Skin disease here refers to disorders of exclusively (or predominantly) the superficial layers of the skin. Psychological factors have long been associated with the onset, maintenance and exacerbation of many cutaneous disorders (Newell, 2000, p. 8; Papadopoulos, Bor, & Legg, 1999, p. 107). Anxiety has been defined as a diffuse, vague and very unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. The anxious person worries a lot, particularly about unknown dangers. The sample size consisted of 40 patients suffering from common skin problems. The study was conducted at dermatlogy outpatient clinic Bhilai, DurgThe samples were selected by purposive sampling method The tools used for assessing the variables are Sociodemographic, self made consent form and Hamilton Rating Anxiety Scale (Hamilton, 1959). A moderate anxiety level was found in 22.5 % of patients.
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Professional life stress and work ability among media professionals
Page 221-224
Adiba Ali and Shahina Maqbool, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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The history of media in elective democracies around the world has been described as the emergence of a professional identity of journalists with claims to an exclusive role and status in society. It is observed that as developments and growth is taking place in the arena of media there are certain potential stressors are also getting attached to it which have influence on the work ability of employees. Maintaining and promoting work ability is an imperative social as well as organizational goal. Research on the population's work ability is a crucial subject from the viewpoint of social objectives. We require information on what variables contain work ability in order to promote it. In this paper the Professional Life stress and Work ability among media professionals are investigated in terms of how these values are challenged or changed in the context of current cultural and technological developments. This study was carried out on 70 media professionals. Results of correlation analysis indicate that Professional Life Stress were significantly negatively related with Work Ability. t- test analysis showed significant difference between male and female employees.
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Patterns of cell phone usage and associated factors among college students
Page 225-229
Anuja Deshpande and Savita Deshpande, Department of Psychology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune

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The aim of the study was to explore patterns of cell phone usage, and the activities that contribute to cell phone dependency among college students. This is a mixed methods study. Chi-Square computed on data from 400 participants indicated that messaging was the popular reason for the mobile phone usage. Analysis also suggested that participants partook differently across various activities. Qualitative data was explored using thematic analysis. Forty college students with high cell phone dependency scores on the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPS) were interviewed though semi-structured questions in an in-depth interview. The themes identified in their responses were tabulated and were also compared across theoretical frameworks that discuss cell phone use and dependence. The study provides direction for further investigation of cell-phone dependency and addictive symptom patterns among youth.
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Examining myths and realities of old age: A qualitative study
Page 230-239
Surbhi Kumar, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The purpose of the present study was to garner a holistic understanding about the prevalence of myths of old age from the perspectives of both the young and the old. A sample of 40 participants (20 young, 20 old) was selected using purposive sampling keeping in mind the family structure joint v/s nuclear. Using a semi structured questionnaire, the participants (both male & female) were asked to reflect on 8 popular myths of old age like “To be Old is to be Sick” and their responses were analysed thematically and comparatively keeping the demographic variables in mind. The results indicate that the two age groups differ in many ways especially in the way they rationalize the old age. Further the type of family system joint or nuclear also has repercussions in the understandings that are created about the reality of old age, making space for myths and stereotypes. Such an exploration of persisting myths allows for breaking the ageist stereotypes and bringing about reform in public policy and gerontological education and creating useful interventions for the ageing workforce.
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Slums and provision of basic amenities in urban centres of India
Page 240-244
Vikas Sehra, Centre for the Study of Regional Development (CSRD), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

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The making of slum-free India has faced with various challenges over the years. The disparity in urban India, particularly in slums are glaring. The access to basic amenities is undisputable for an appreciable quality of life. Current study highlights the urgent need for providing basic amenities in slums. And by comparing statistics and findings in cities of Hyderabad and Jaipur lacunas emerges in the availability of basic amenities to the most marginalised in slums of urban India. The study considers various dimensions as infrastructure, sanitation, women empowerment & environmental care in slums, to give a holistic analysis. Which points to an urgent attention from policy makers to address the accentuating inter and intra city disparities in urban India.
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Prevalence of health risk behaviors among adolescents in Delhi-NCR, India
Page 245-248
Bhumika Kapoor, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Health risk behaviors are a serious threat to health and well-being, often with grave current as well as future consequences. Previous research has recognized a particular vulnerability among adolescents for the same. Keeping this in mind, the aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence and magnitude of major health risk behaviors (namely, unhealthy weight control behaviors, substance abuse, & violence and physical aggression) among adolescents, living in Delhi and NCR, India. To this end, a self-report survey was administered on a large sample of adolescents (N=300), belonging to the age range of 16-20 years (mean = 17.48; SD = 1.42). Results depicted that a number of participants agreed to be struggling with body image issues, resulting in poor and unhealthy dietary habits. Participants reported avoidance of food (12.3%), binge eating (29%), purging (5%), and rigorous exercising (31.4%). Moreover, use of laxatives or diet pills (without a doctor's advice) was also reported. Substance abuse also elicited noticeable prevalence, with alcohol consumption generating most current use (25.1%), followed by tobacco (15%) and drug use (6.1%). Results also highlighted adolescent engagement in bullying and physical aggression. Significant differences were revealed between males and females on substance abuse and violence and physical aggression.
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Working condition and problem faced by of women construction worker in Varanasi district
Page 249-252
Suman Singh and Shaila Parveen, Department of Social Work, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth University, Varanasi

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Women construction worker play important role in the country's economic development but their requirements are not fulfill adequately at the work place. They work in various hazardous condition and lives with low income, poor nutrition and high level of exploitation at work place. The construction sector offers job with low wages and they compelled to enter in this sector due to poverty. This paper attempt to analyze the working condition and problem face by women construction worker at work place and highlight major finding of the study.
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Television advertising: Influencing attitudes with information and involvement in sanitation campaigns
Page 253-258
Aswathi Mary Varghese and Swati Jaywant Rao Bute, Amity School of Communication (ASCO), Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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The use of media in development communication can be treated at two levels: one being mass media, often using television, radio, and print media and second being community media, mainly using radio and other folk expressions concerned with giving voice and representation to the various segments of local communities. Advertising is often an important part of the mass media strategy designed for changing perceptions in the course of merely shifting the relative salience of attitudes, especially when the receiver is not particularly involved in the message to induce the adoption of innovations or other changes in behaviors. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of anti-open defecation television advertising campaign designed for 'Swachh Bharat Campaign' in motivating people to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up to fight the sanitation crisis in India. The study attempts to answer some questions regarding the effects of television advertising in the short run as well as in the long run. It also tries to understand the role of media in social change and as to how television helps in bringing the critical social issues to the public sphere and moreover to the notice of the common masses of the country. Information gained from evaluation is highlighted, and recommendations for future media campaigns and initiatives are made.
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Stress among adolescents of government intermediate schools
Page 259-261
Anju Nagaur and Pallavi Bhatnagar, Department of Psychology, University of Luckow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Stress is an appraisal of one's resources to cope up with the challenging situations and places a limit on one's capacity to face the situation efficiently. The stressful condition occurs when demands exceed the available resources. The same happens during the phase of adolescence. The adolescents face the turbulence of growing up stresses along with pressures of performance, cut throat competition, experiencing frustrations and conflicts of everyday life in relational world. For adolescents who are living in difficult circumstances, the level of stress only escalates to harmful extent having an adverse effect on their physical as well as mental health. The present study is an attempt to explore the stress level among adolescents of rural and urban area of Bakshi-ka-talab, Nishatganj, and Chowk area of Lucknow. The total sample was of 400 adolescents of government schools in age range 14 to 18 years, equally divided into rural and urban school's students. Anxiety Depression Stress Scale (Bhatnagar et al., 2011) was administered on them. The present research paper addresses the scores on stress scale only. The CR value has been calculated to find out locale (rural & urban) and gender difference. The findings indicated that rural adolescents are high on stress level as well as female adolescents were found to be stressed as compared to their male counterparts irrespective of area.
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Depression: The farm labour of a BPL village speak
Page 262-263
Sonu Bharti and Pallavi Bhatnagar, Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Depression is the most common mental disorder in the world. It not only reduces the quality of life but also is potential cause for predisposing the person for various physical, as well as, mental health problems. Though depression has been empirically studied by mental health professionals, however these studies have an over representation of the urban and educated population. India's 72.2 % population is residing in rural area, hence it is important to study them. People living below poverty line are under represented on empirical researches for their wellbeing and mental health issues. India's 25.70% rural population is BPL, It is important to explore the mental health status of rural BPL groups who are by and large underprivileged and disadvantaged. The present study is an attempt to explore the depression of farm labour. The sample comprised of 200 farm labour of Lebrua village of Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh. Depression has been assessed by the depression sub scale of ADSS (Bhatnagar et al., 2011). The result clearly indicates gender differences, with females reporting higher depression as compared to their counterparts.
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Conflicting perspectives on homosexuality among Indian students: A qualitative inquiry
Page 264-268
Sumangali Radhakrishnan, Department of Psychology, Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi, Delhi, Akanksha Malik, Department of Management, Studies, IIT Delhi Jayanti Bharadwaj, Human Resources Schneider Electric, Gurgaon, Haryana, and Shubhi Prasad, Human Resources Cars 24 Services

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Drawing on interviews, the article aims to study conflicting perspectives on legalisation of homosexuality with a sample of nine students from different universities, fields of study, and geographical locations across India. Five different spheres of conflicts in representations have been identified: (1) homosexuality as a natural occurrence versus homosexuality as an abnormality; (2) the notion of freedom for all vs. need for social restrictions; (3) sanctity of traditional marriage versus marriage as an expression of love and trust for all with respect to same-sex marriages; (4) trichotomy in the representation of families with same-sex parents; and (5) support and tolerance for family members and friends, in case of perceived homosexuality. Implications for future research and the way forward have been discussed.
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Impact of participative decision-making on the work place well-being of school teachers
Page 269-275
Shadma Absar, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi

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Teachers are the central actors in imparting quality education and deeply influence the teaching learning process in schools. It is important to study the factors which could enhance their productivity and work place well-being. The present study aimed at studying the impact of involvement of teachers in decision making process in the schools on their work place well-being in the Indian school education context. Teachers' organisational commitment, their organisational citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction were used as predictors of work place well-being of school teachers. Participative decision making and work place well-being of teachers were studied through standardised rating scales. Data was collected from 240 senior secondary school teachers in Delhi. Participative decision making and work place well-being of teachers was studied across two school managements (central and state government) and designation (TGTs & PGTs). Data was analysed quantitatively using 2X2 factorial design. Findings of the study revealed that organisational commitment and citizenship behaviour was found to differ significantly across the two school managements, also the job satisfaction of teachers was found to differ significantly across the two school managements and designation (PGT/TGT). Regression analysis revealed that the involvement of teachers in decision making process had significant impact on their organisational commitment, citizenship behaviour and job satisfaction, however there were differences across school managements.
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Powerlessness and under-participation: A comparative study
Page 276-278
Anupama Sihag, Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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A joint consultation of employees and management in decision making, broadly known as employees' participation in management has recently been in trend for maintaining peace, increasing productivity, and growth of an organization. The present study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of under-participation and powerlessness in various organizations and how both these factors contribute to occupational stress and unnecessary conflicts at workplace. The present study includes 150 participants, 50 each from healthcare, teaching, and banking sector. Occupational Stress Index by Srivastava and Singh (1983) was used to assess the levels of under-participation and powerlessness at workplace. It was observed that even after taking significant steps in the direction of effective employees' participation in management; issues related to powerlessness and under-participation still prevail and contribute significantly to the development of occupational stress.
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Effects of demonetization: A study on Indian economy
Page 279-282
Susmita Chaturvedi, Department of Commerce, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi

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As known to all of us that with the announcement of demonetization by our Prime Minister Mr.Narendra Modi the country had to experience its pros and cons. In his opinion it was to curb black money which was used for illegal activity and terrorism funding and to make india a cash less economy by pushing digital transaction. But with the unprepared banks people had to face serious crisis. This paper deals with what is demonetization, past experience of other countries and how it had effected Indian economy.
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Rural women and domestic violence: A sociological study of Haryana
Page 283-286
Jatesh Kathpalia and Subhash Chander, Department of Sociology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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The word violence refers to the crime and physical force. Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in the urban and the rural areas. Women have been the vulnerable section of the society and constitute a sizeable segment of the population of India. Women have been vulnerable to violence and exploitation such as harassment, taunts, abuses, battering, molestation, rape, dowry deaths, mental and physical torture. The present paper has been prepared with a view to discuss the various issues related to the domestic violence against Women in rural areas. This study was conducted in Karnal and Sirsa districts of Haryana state. From these districts two blocks namely Indri from Karnal and Bada Gudha from Sirsa district were selected randomly. From the selected blocks, four villages namely Kheri Maan Singh and Jain pura Sidhana (Indri) and Biru wala, Burj Bhangu (Bada Gudha) were drawn randomly. From the selected villages, 200 respondents were also selected randomly. Study revealed that majority of respondents (60%) faced domestic violence in various forms. Further analysis revealed that out of 120 respondents, who faced domestic violence, 92.50 per cent faced emotional violence and 90.83 per cent faced verbal violence.
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Costs of maintaining receivables in MSMES in Haryana
Page 287-290
Monika, Haryana School of Business, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science &Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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Success of a company is dependent upon its profits, which, in turn, depend upon the velocity of its capital evidenced by reinvestment rate. A faster velocity of capital is largely dependent upon higher rate and the costs of receivables dependent upon credit sales, as it is in the case of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). This study explores the costs composition of 455 micro, small and medium-sized companies in Haryana using their primary data by survey method. This paper explores the composition of costs associated with maintaining receivables. The study examined that which cost of maintaining receivables is most considerable with the specific range by the MSMEs entrepreneur.
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Process nature of well-being: A theoretical overview
Page 291-295
Namita Mohanty, Department of Psychology Utkal University Bhubaneswar, Odisha, Jitendra Mohanty, Department of Management KSOM, KIIT University Bhubaneswar, Odisha,Prabhudarsan Sahoo, Department of Psychology Nayagarh Autonomous College Nayagarh, Odisha, and Kalpana Sahoo, XIMB Bubaneswar Odisha

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World Health Organization has viewed well-being as a state of equilibrium at the physical, mental, social and spiritual domains. “How” aspects or dynamics of well-being based on theoretical framework help us to understand the process nature of well-being. These ideas are extremely helpful in developing well-ness enhancement programmes. Intentional activity theory suggests that volitional activities where energy is spent increases well-being. Telic or end- point theories posit that well-being is gained when goal or need is reached and persistence of unfulfilled needs are responsible for unhappiness. According to Bottom-up theory happy life is the accumulation of happy moments. In contrast, top-down theory advocates for a global propensity to experience things in a positive manner. Cognitive approach to Associationistic theories suggests that events attributed to internal and stable factors bring in maximum well-being. Judgment theories based on comparison views that people experience well-being when they find themselves to be better off than others. According to Adaptation theory recent changes produce happiness and unhappiness. But people eventually adapt to the overall level of events and restore happiness. Proactive theory predicts that the greatest happiness is experienced by those who have negatively skewed distribution of events. Another popular form of judgment theory advocates that the less the discrepancy between the actual condition and aspiration the greater is the happiness. Thus, there are different theoretical routes to understand the process nature of well-being. A crucial examination of their relative strengths is a challenging task before the researchers.
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Converging paths in Indian meditational system and Jainism
Page 296-299
Jaishree Jain, Department of Psychology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Psychotherapy encompasses exploration of suffering of an individual through the means of psychological techniques and finding ways for the remedy. The spiritual significance envisages to find answer for questions beyond our physical and social self. The spiritual self seeks answer for existential queries like “Why do we suffer?” What is the meaning of our suffering? “Where do we finally reach to end our suffering?” Issues related to the dynamics of the spiritual self and the psychological matrix of well-being will be discussed in detail to decipher the spiritual language of psychotherapy.
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The role of refugees in the amelioration of Delhi's Economy
Page 300-303
Shruti Sharma, Department of History, PGGC- 11, Chandigarh

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The refugee migration is rightly attributed to the partition of India on 15 of August, 1947. The partition resulted in some 47.5 lakh (4.75 million) refugees migrating to India and of these, 4, 95, 391 descending on Delhi1. During the 60 years of the post-Independence period, Delhi's trajectory has been heavily influenced by the refugees' significant role in transforming the social, economic and physical landscape of Delhi. The coming in of multiplexes, malls, coffee shops and proliferation of brand name outlets coupled with the gentrification of Karol Bagh and West Patel Nagar along with the steep rise in Local markets like South Extension and fancy developer enclaves, it was all brought about by the steep rise in the disposable income of the refugees who were out to reinvent. . If Delhi today is the Queen of retail, then the role of refugees in its exaltation to this enviable position can, by no stretch of imagination, be underplayed.
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A study of stigma and its correlation with the self-esteem on socially excluded group: People living in leprosy community of Delhi
Page 304-307
Shama Norien Major, I.A.S.E, Faculty of Education, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Leprosy has always been linked with the social stigma and ostracizing of patient from society. Stigma and associated psychosocial problems are commonly seen in different cultures among the leprosy patients. This research aims to study the different aspects of health-related stigma and explore casual correlation with the self esteem. Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) stigma scale and Rosenberg self esteem questionnaires were used to collect data and Focus Group Discussions were conducted with the patients and their family members for collecting information on their socio-demographic characteristics and affects of the disease on their daily life experiences. Data was analyzed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively for analyzing the correlation between self esteem and stigma in the sample population
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Impulsiveness as a correlate of materialism
Page 308-312
Komila Parthi, Department of Psychology DAV College, Sec 10, Chandigarh and Ramanpreet Kaur, Department of Psychology Punjab University, Chandigarh

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Materialism has been a topic of research in various disciplines since more than a few decades now. But its mammoth form is more haunting now a days as economies are reeling and individual dissatisfaction is on the rise. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of materialism with impulsiveness. To this end, the data was collected from a sample of teachers (N=400) from colleges and universities in Chandigarh. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. The techniques of Pearson Product Moment Correlation and student's t-test were employed. It was observed that participants' endorsement of a materialistic lifestyle correlates positively with their scores on impulsiveness. The gender differences were seen to exist on materialism trait and its components while no gender differences were found on impulsiveness and its second order factors.
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Factors influencing socio-economic viability of small and marginal farmers in southern region of Haryana
Page 313-315
Subhash Chander, Jatesh Kathpalia and Vinod Kumari , Department of Sociology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Rural debtedness in India is one of the most serious problems of the rural economic. Actually, this problem is the sign of weak financial infra structural facilities available to the farmers for their survival and development. The study was conducted in Southern region of Haryana. The results of the study indicate that An average amount of loan of Rs. 229952 was taken by respondents from both sources. It is clear from the data that more than half of the respondents were repaying the loan irregularly while 42.67 per cent were repaying it regularly. Analysis revealed that 61.33% respondents enlisted low profit margins in agriculture as a major cause of debtedness. Analysis further revealed that respondents were burdened because of outstanding loan in spite of that 32.00 per cent respondents repaired or constructed the houses. Regarding problems faced by respondents after taking loan analysis revealed that overwhelming majority of the respondents (86.00%) were facing the problem of declining income after taking loan. It was also suggested that e-National Agricultural marketing facility should be provided to the farming community.
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Psychological well-being among adolescents: A review
Page 316-318
Neha Bishnoi School of Education Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh, Haryana

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Psychological well-being is conceptualized as a primarily private phenomenon that is focused on the challenges encountered by individuals in their personal lives, social well-being represents a more public experience that is focused on the social tasks encountered by individuals in their social structures and communities. Understanding of psychological well-being is of much importance for every individual. It became imperative for sports where players have to undergone severe physical and psychological exercises and tough situation to perform. The present paper reviews on psychological well-being among adolescents.
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स्वांग में महिलाओं की सहभागिता
Page 319-321
संध्या शर्मा, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, Haryana and सतीश कश्यप Lala Lajpat Rai University of Animal & Veterinary Science, Hisar, Haryana

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स्वांग भारत की प्राचीनतम लोकधर्मी नाट्य परम्परा है। सांग, भगत, माच नौटंकी, ख्याल तमाशा आदि लोकविधाएं स्वांग विधा का ही अंश हैं। हरियाणा के प्रोदशिक लोकनाट्य सांग या स्वांग में महिलाओं की भागीदारी बहुत कम रही। पुरूषवादी वर्चस्व एवम् महिलाओं के प्रति रूढ़िवादिता हरियाणा प्रदेश में व्याप्त होने के बावजूद भी महिलाओं ने अपनी सहभागिता का इस प्रादेशिक लोकनाट्य में अहसास कराया है और आज वर्तमान समय में स्वांग और सांग का प्रतिनिधित्व महिलाओं द्वारा किया जा रहा है।
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सोशल मीडिया में हिन्दी भाषा का बदलता स्वरूप
Page 322-324
प्रदीप कुमार, संचार प्रबंधन एवं तकतीकी विभाग, गुरू जम्भेश्वर विज्ञान एवं प्रोद्योगिकी विश्वविद्यालय, हिसार, हरियाणा

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भारत में इंटरनेट 1980 के दशक मे आया, जब एर्नेट को भारत सरकार के इलेक्ट्रानिक्स विभाग और संयुक्त राष्ट्र उन्नति कार्यक्रम की ओर से प्रोत्साहन मिला। सामान्य उपयोग के लिये इंटरनेट 15 अगस्त 1995 से उपलब्ध हुआ, जब विदेश सचांर निगम लिमिटेड ने गेटवे सर्विस शुरू की। भारत मे इंटरनेट प्रयोग करने वालों की संख्या में तेजी से वृद्धि हुई है, और वर्तमान 400 मिलियन यानी 40 करोड़ से अधिक लोगों तक इंटरनेट की पहुंच हो चुकी है, जो कि देश की कुल जनसंख्या का करीब 33 फीसदी और दुनिया के सभी इंटरनेट प्रयोक्ता देशों के हिसाब से महज 10 फीसदी है। मौजूदा समय में इंटरनेट का प्रयोग जीवन के सभी क्षेत्रों-सोशल मीडिया, ईमेल, बैंकिंग, शिक्षा, ट्रेन इंफॉर्मेशन-रिजर्वेशन, ऑनलाइन शॉपिंग, अंतरिक्ष प्रोद्योगिकी, बीमा, विभिन्न बिल घर बैठे जमा करने और अन्य सेवाओं के लिए भी किया जा रहा है।
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Contact Us

Sunil Saini, PhD
President, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
suneil.psy@gmail.com

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