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Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 2017 (8), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Quality of life among diabetic and asthmatic patients: A comparative study
Page 95-99
Dinesh Naik, N.V.P. Mondal's Arts, Commerce & Sciences College, Lasalgaon, Nasik, Maharashtra

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The aim of the present study is to compare the quality of life among diabetic and asthmatic patients. The two most common chronic diseases worldwide are diabetes and asthma. It is a major public health concern in developing countries (Azevedo & Alla, 2008). Asthma and diabetes are chronic conditions and were considered earlier as having a psychosomatic origin. In the past, prominent psychoanalysts such as Menninger (1935) and Dunbar (1936) claimed that diabetes was a part of psychosomatic disease caused by emotional stress. Quality of life is a phrase used to refer to an individual's total well-being The purpose of this study was to see quality of life among diabetes and asthmatics patients. The sample size is 90 in total, where 30 diabetic and 30 asthmatic patients from different medical hospitals of Raipur and Chandigarh and 30 non-patients group has been taken for the study through purposive sampling. The tools used for assessing the variables are Sociodemographic data sheet, WHO Quality of Life - BREF (1996) and General Health Questionnaire- GHQ (Shamsunder et al., 1986). All the groups differ significantly on Quality of life domains i.e. physical health, psychological, social relationship and environmental factors.
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Emotional intelligence as a predictor of employees general health
Page 100-104
Pankaj Tripathi, Department of Psychology F. G. College, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh and Neena Kohli, Department of Psychology University of Allahabad, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

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The major aim of the present study was to examine the role of Emotional Intelligence on employees General Health. More specifically the study aimed to see the relationship between General Health and Emotional Intelligence (Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others' Emotion Appraisal, & Use of emotion) of Knowledge based Organization Employees. The sample consisted of 138 employees working in the knowledge based organization in Gurgaon. The mean age of the employees was 44.94 years. 31.88 %of employees were B.E. /B. Tech, 5.79 % were B.C.A., 44.79% were M. Tech and 17.39% of employees were M.C.A. 12 items Emotional Intelligence Scale (Wong & Law, 2002) measuring Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others' Emotion Appraisal, and, Use of emotion and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12; Goldberg, 1972; Goldberg& Hillier, 1979) was administered on the sample. All the scales were five point rating scale with a low score indicating less of these characteristics. Results of correlations and regression depict that there is a significant positive impact of emotional intelligence on General Health. Emotionally intelligent employees will possess a higher level of Employees General Health and it will positively impact on their success of their work as well as non-work life.
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A correlational study of happiness, resilience and mindfulness among nursing student
Page 105-107
Neha Benada and Rashmi Chowdhry, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between several constructs related to positive psychology like resilience, happiness, mindfulness. Previous research has shown a need to study positive aspects including happiness and resilience in relation to duration of nursing study. The present study assessed 70 nursing students on happiness, resilience and mindfulness scale. The study had several important findings including a positive correlation between happiness, resilience and mindfulness among the nursing student. The study found happiness and mindfulness to be the best predictors of resilience. The study is found a moderate uphill (positive) relationship in happiness, resilience and mindfulness among nursing college student.
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Resilience as predictor of well-being among elected woman representatives in India
Page 108-111
Gurpreet Dandiwal, Sanjay Kumar, and Sandeep Singh Rana, Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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It is documented that personality is a very significant factor in determining the coping mechanism and level of satisfaction in life. Personality is a combination of various traits and dispositions. There are some individuals who are very vulnerable to develop unhealthy ways to cope with stress and adversities of life. Whereas as some of them are very hard to crack and remain stable in tough and challenging times. A very common factor which makes them emotionally and physically sounds that is resilience in the literature it is called as a process, resilience. It is a gradual process which basically helps a person to discover his personal and unique abilities. Low level of resilience leads to unhealthy behaviors such as immature interpersonal relationships and low achievement motivation. It affects the overall mental health of an individual significantly. With respect to women it is very essential dimension to cultivate in personality of women to proactively dealing with traumas of life and zeal to achieve the heights. The present study was aimed at to assess the relationship between resilience and well-being among women representatives. 300 elected women representatives (Sarpanches) were recruited with age range of 25-45 years and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of the study. The tools were used in the study: The Resilience scale by Wagnild and Young (1987) and Ryffs scales of Psychological Well-being (1995) to gather relevant information. The findings of the study indicate that the psychological well-being is positively correlated with resilience ability of women representatives. Thus, Resilience makes a women internally strong and mentally tough to encounter the challenges of life as well as ensure their participation in Indian democratic system in building a nation.
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A study on life satisfaction and emotional well-being among university students
Page 112-116
Richa Ojha, National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh and Varun Kumar, Clinical Psychologist, Ankur Rehab Center Dharampuri, Indore, Madhya Pradesh

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Life satisfaction is the way people evaluate their lives and how they feel about their directions and options for the future. It is a measure of well-being and may be assessed in terms of mood, satisfaction with relations with others and with achieved goals, self-concepts, and self-perceived ability to cope with daily life. So this research will be an attempt on this path. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether the emotional well being of university students affects their life satisfaction. A sample of 223 university students (of both sexes) was covered by purposive sampling method from Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, Jaunpur. The sample was selected on the basis of age range between 18 years to 25 years. The major thrust of the present study was to study the relation between Life Satisfaction and Emotional Well Being among University Students. Correlation analysis was used to measure the linear relationship between predicting and outcome variables. The life satisfaction and emotional well being are correlated (.276**). In essence, the present study highlights the influence of emotional well-being on life satisfaction among university students. It can be said that the emotional well-being significantly influenced life satisfaction.
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Parent-adolescent attachment as perceived by adolescents
Page 117-119
Ahanthem Neemi Devi and Juri Baruah, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, Nityananda Pradhan, Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh, and Tulika Borah, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Home Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam

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The study examined adolescents' perception of the quality of parental attachment. The study was undertaken in Jorhat District of Assam. As many as 420 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (210 girls & 210 boys) from 10 schools constituted the sample of the investigation. Adolescents' perception of the quality of parental attachment was assessed by using Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment inventory by Armsden and Greensberg (1987). The inventory measures three broad dimensions of parental attachment such as degree of mutual trust, quality of communication and extent of alienation, separately for mothers and fathers. The results of the study revealed that mutual trust and quality of communication with mothers were higher than the fathers. It was found that adolescents' perceived quality of attachment with their mothers was higher than attachment with fathers. The results further revealed significant gender differences with respect to maternal attachment with girls showing higher attachment with their parents than boys.
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Factors effecting social support among adolescents in Haryana
Page 120-122
Rupika Chopra, Shakuntla Punia and Santosh Sangwan, Department of Human Development and Family Studies I. C. College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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Social support describes the physical and emotional comfort given to individuals by their family, friends and other significant persons in their lives. The present study was undertaken on 460 adolescents studying in schools of 11th and 12th standard of Hisar district of Haryana state. The age range was 16 to 17 years. Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) developed by Sarson et al. (1987) was used to assess the social support. Results of the study highlighted that adolescents studying in schools received good social support and were more satisfied as compared to university adolescents. If adolescents do not get social support at the time they need either from family members or non family members, they will become victim and get depression earlier. So that social support from peers, friends, family members or non family members becomes important during adolescence period.
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Measuring domestic harmony: A tool for positive family functioning
Page 123-131
Kakul Hai, Department of School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Manipal University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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This paper documents the construction of scale for measuring domestic harmony, a novel construct conceptualized in a previous study (Hai & Agrawal, 2015). Drawing items from an initial thematic content analysis of personal interviews, 246 items were constructed. These items were narrowed down to 96 items through a four-step procedure, which included face validity, consultation with academic experts, and two pilot studies. Factor analysis was performed on the 96 items, which yielded five factors of domestic harmony with a 50-item scale for its measurement. The factors or dimensions of domestic harmony were identified to be: congeniality and cohesion; support and interpersonal concern; nurtured individuality; participatory decision-making; and openness in communication. A detailed description and explanation of each dimension is given. The newly constructed domestic harmony scale is also presented with this paper.
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Parental influences in academic performance of school going students
Page 132-137
Priyanka Pandey and Komilla Thapa, Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh

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This study was conducted to examine the contribution of parents to the ongoing academic progress of students. As no suitable measures were available, one scale was constructed to measure parental influence in academic performance. An item analysis was done to select the statistically sounds items. Factor analysis was done to determine the factorial structure of this scales. 120 students (both boys & girls) from different schools (government & semi government) constituted the sample. The results showed parental influences was positively correlated to actual academic performance (obtain from school records). Vis a visa boys, girls obtained higher scores on scale and perceived parental influence in positive manner. No significant school differences were found.
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Emotional regulation and perceptual motor functioning in opioid addicts and non-opioid individuals
Page 138-141
Gargi Sharma, Department of Psychology Manipal University, Jaipur, Rajasthan and Gagandeep Kaur, Registered Psychologist Fillian Health Care, New Zealand

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Changing shades of life in the contemporary world gave way to idyllic as well as harmful life style in individuals. One of the modern world's evils is drug abuse and intensified addiction. Governments all over the world dispatch constant efforts to reduce the drug trafficking by enacting strict laws and enforcing the same. But the corruption of human resource is still high due to drug addictions and the positive potentials of individuals are stunted. Opioid addiction is one of those drug addictions that are characterized by the inability to discontinue opiate abuse and it is a constellation of physiological, behavioral and cognitive phenomena with severe intensity. This research is conducted to study the perceptual motor functioning and emotional regulation among opioid addicts individual. In the present research normative survey method is used to obtain the precise information. The sample consist of 100, i.e., 50 opioid addicts and 50 normal sample by clinical purposive sampling. The study aims at comparing the perceptual motor functioning and emotional regulation between opioid addicts and normal sample. The results showed that the opioid addicted individual have poor emotional regulation, motor functioning and perception and compare to those of normal individuals.
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Self-esteem and its impact on performance
Page 142-147
Navin Kumar, Department of Psychology, Bhim Rao Ambedkar College, University of Delhi, New Delhi

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It is a psychological study of self esteem, a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude toward self and also a comparative quantitative study of General versus Reserved category executive trainees (at the time of interview) of Indian Oil Corporation Limited. Self-esteem is an important indicator of the performance which can predict present or future behavior and responses. For measuring the same sample size is taken 600, from all over the India. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was used and results are analyzed carefully. A comparison of self-esteems is taken out based on before (at the time of interview) and after (on selection, at the time of joining) achieving the target/goal. Difference in self-esteem based on gender, economic status, and category is taken out. Descriptive and inferential statistics techniques are used for measuring and analyzing results. Results show that there is no significant difference between self-esteems of general versus reserved categories and comparing the study with reviews it is found that self-esteem is related with happiness, life satisfaction and wellbeing. It is also suggested that self esteem and performance affects each other at some extent and self -esteem of individuals increases after achieving goal. In an organization or workplace an individual's low self-esteem can affect the mental well-being negatively which can lead to stress, low productivity and loss. To solve this challenge and to increase maximum profit, it is important to understand and analyze it effectively.
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Personality and creativity as predictors of psychological well-being in caregivers of person with chronic mental illness
Page 148-153
Jaya Bharti and Pallavi Bhatnagar, Department of Psychology University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Well-being is a Dynamic concept that comprises Personal, Emotional, Social, Psychological, and Spiritual dimensions along with health related behaviors. The present research was conducted to find out whether Psychological well-being in Caregivers of Person with chronic mental Illness can be predicted by Personality Dispositions and Creativity. We assume that Psychological well-being is likely to be predicted by personality Dispositions. Low level of neuroticism, high levels of extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and creativity. 100 caregivers of Person with chronic mental Illness were selected through Purposive Sampling technique from the Private clinics and Private Psychiatric Hospitals. NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Creative Behavior Inventory (Hocevar, 1979) and Psychological Well-being Scale (Ryff, 1995) were administered to the caregivers of Person with chronic mental Illness. The findings of our study revealed that Psychological Well-Being is predicted by high level of Extraversion and Conscientiousness and low level of Neuroticism after controlling the demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, weekly hours on caregiving & job). The findings of this study revealed that increasing extraversion and conscientiousness among Caregivers can eventually help in promoting Psychological well-being.
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Self-esteem and locus of control among college students
Page 154-157
Preeti Tamta, Department of Psychology S.S.J. Campus Almora, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand and Manoj Kumar Rao, Department of Psychology B. P. D. Govt. P.G. College, Kanker, Chhattisgarh

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The present study examined the role of gender, stream and locus of control of college student on self esteem. A 2x2x2 factorial design with gender (boys & girls) x Stream (Science & Arts groups) x locus of control (Internal & External) was used in present study. Locus of control scale was applied to identify the internal and external control. Results revealed that the significant effect of gender and locus of control on self esteem. More specifically, boys tended to develop high self esteem comparison to girls. Moreover, internal locus of control student tends to indicate high self esteem than external locus of control. Correlation results evinced that locus of control positively related with self esteem and its dimensions.
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Study habit of high and low achiever
Page 158-161
Gouri Sharma, Department of Education, Pt. Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur

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The present study aims to find out the difference between study habits of high achiever and low achiever. The sample of the study consisted of 80 students of class 11th (40 high achiever, 40 low achiever) of the age group 16 to 18 years belonging to English medium schools of Raipur city, Chhattisgarh. Study Habit Inventory constructed by Mukhopadhyaya and Sansanwal (1985) was administered to the selected sample to assess their study habits .The data was analyzed statistically by employing mean, SD and t-test. Findings of the study showed that there are significant differences found in study behavior i.e. comprehension, study sets, interaction, drilling, recording and language of high and low achiever.
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Emotional intelligence in the workplace
Page 162-165
Deepesh Rathore and N. K.Chadha, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi and

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a concept has grown in significance since its conception in 1990 and popularization outside the academic world in 1995 after Daniel Goleman's seminal work, Emotional Intelligence: why it matters more than IQ. After that many different EI assessment tools have been developed in order to measure an individual's EI and with that numerous research studies were conducted to find out the relationship between EI and leadership style, occupational stress, job performance, conflict management etc. This article aims to capture the wide variety of researches done to prove the utility of emotional intelligence in the work setting.
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Buddhism and psychology: Basics of integration
Page 166-168
Ramesh Sandhu, Department of Education, C. R. College of Education, Hisar, Haryana

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Both Buddhism and psychology support the view that emotions strongly influence people's thoughts, words, and actions. Both help people to pursue transient pleasures and satisfaction. Buddhist believes in nurturing the happiness called "sukh" and relieving the humanity from sufferings (dukh). Buddhists believe that "sukh" can be achieved through training of mind. It rises from the attentional, emotional and cognitive balance of the mind. Buddhist does not advocate the suppression or repression of destructives states of mind but seek their origin and identify how they are experienced. Buddhism teaches how a person can transform and free himself from all afflictive states. In this process one learn to refine one's ability and introspectively monitor one's own mental activities. Such rigorous and sustained training in mindfulness and introspection help a person to cultivate attentional stability and vividness. All these practices of Buddhism bring it closer to psychology. Buddhism practices related to emotional life make three very distinct contributions to psychology. These issues have been ignored by many psychologists. Buddhist provides some practices that can help a person to report on his own internal practices and such practices might provide crucial data which is not possible through psychological techniques. Buddhism practices provide therapies not just for the disturbed, but for all who seek to improve the quality of their lives.
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Happiness: Hedonic and eudaimonic
Page 169-173
V. R. Shinde, Department of Psychology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune

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'Happiness' is very difficult to define and so also is the case about 'Well-being'. Till today there is no widely accepted definition by the psychologist about these two terms. Happiness and well-being are seems to be synonymous and parallel to each other. There are many parameters of happiness and well-being. Happiness is like a state of deep sleep at night. The way we feel happy in the sleepy mood we must feel the same state of happiness at every moments of our state of consciousness. Subjective well-being, or happiness, in everyday terms, reflects an individual's own judgment about the quality of his or her life. From subjective well-being (SWB) perspective, physical, economic, social, emotional, mental and community indicators are incomplete (Diener & Suh, 1997). Diener (1984) defined Subjective well-being (SWB) asratings of life satisfaction and positive emotional experiences. There are two traditions of happiness, i.e., Hedonic Happiness and Eudaimonic Happiness. Both the happiness are essential to study at broader level.
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Character strengths and subjective well-being: An exploratory study of Indian youth
Page 174-177
Natasha Yasmin and Waheeda Khan, Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi

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Character strengths formulate the foundation of an individual's personality; positive traits representing an important route towards' psychological good life'. These qualities help an individual to make significant contribution in the world and achieve well-being (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). However, it varies from individual to individual because of moral and cultural values placed on them. The current study aimed to investigate how character strengths are related to subjective well-being among Indian youth. 50 university students of age range 18-25 years were chosen. Data was collected by administering VIA Inventory of Strengths (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004) and Subjective Well-being Inventory (Sell & Nagpal, 1992). Correlational analysis revealed significant relationship between different character strengths and the overall subjective well-being. Findings suggest that similar studies need to be conducted to find out if strengths varies across cultures and how they can be used to formulate interventions directed towards development of youth.
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Life satisfaction and emotional stability of career women
Page 178-180
Preeti Mathur and Jyoti Panwar, Department of Psychology, JNVU, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

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The present study was designed to investigate life satisfaction and emotional stability of career women. The study was conducted on 60 subjects: 30 working women and 30 non working women. The sample was drawn by random sampling technique within the age range of 35-50 years from different spheres of career women and the homemakers of Jodhpur city, to serve as subjects in the present study. The life satisfaction scale by Singh and Joseph (1971) was used to measure life satisfaction and to assess emotional stability N.I Scale by Agarwal and Purnima (1980) was used. The results of the study revealed no difference between career women and non working women on life satisfaction and emotional stability, i.e., neuroticism. The results are discussed in the light of available literature.
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The potential of managerial coaching for employee effectiveness: A brief review
Page 181-185
Shilpa Shinde, Department of HR&OB FLAME University, Lavale, Pune and Arun Bachhav, Department of Psychology L.V.H College, Panchavati, Nashik City, Maharashtra

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Managerial coaching is emerging as a very critical tool to create competitive advantage for organizations by improving employee and organizational performance. The objective of this paper is to review extant literature on managerial coaching and based on it, suggest directions for future research. We discuss the relevance of coaching as a practice for creating individual and organizational effectiveness, where the concept of coaching is distinguished from other related concepts like counseling-therapy and mentoring. Subsequently, the various processes and measurements of managerial coaching are reviewed for their relevance in organizations. The paper further examines the outcomes of managerial coaching at the employee and organizational levels. Drawing conclusions from the review, we suggest two critical areas of future research: work engagement and self efficacy, which can enable organizations to increase the effectiveness of managerial coaching.
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A phenomenological approach to understand the nature based experiences and its influence on holistic development
Page 186-195
Silpa Sailakumar and KP Naachimuthu, Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

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Children today have few opportunities for outdoor free play or regular contact with the natural world. Nowadays children's physical boundaries have shrunk due to a number of factors (Francis, 1991; Kytta, 2004). The culture of childhood that played outside is gone and children's everyday life has shifted to the indoors (Hart, 1999; Moore, 2004). As a result, children's opportunity for direct and spontaneous contact with nature is a vanishing experience of childhood. Not only have children's play environments dramatically changed in the last few decades, but also the time children have to play has decreased. Children need nature to grow up in a healthy way and be prepared for adult life. Child psychologists and psychotherapists are now convinced that contact between children and the natural environment is essential to ensure their balanced psychological and physical development as adolescents and adults (Ilaria, 2015). To understand the lived-in experiences of the children of previous generation with the nature, and how nature play a role in what they are today, variety of open-ended questions are chosen to elicit the most information possible in the time available. Qualitative research design (phenomenological approach) was adopted for this research. The phenomenological approach (realistic phenomenology) enables the researcher to understand the nature and meaning of an experience for a particular group of people in a particular setting (Moustakas, 1994) by encouraging individual participants to share their stories. The sample size selected for the present study is 20. Samples of only above 35+yrs is selected for the study who had experienced the phenomenon of nature based learning experience (specifically their exposure & experience with traditional games). Data were collected through individual interviews. In-depth interviews are optimal for collecting data on individuals' perspectives, and experiences are being explored.
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Psycho-social implications of globalization: An opportunity-based perspective
Page 196-199
Bhumika Kapoor and Aakanksha Tomar, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The phenomenon of globalization has largely been absent from the academic discourse in psychology. However, in the past few years researchers have started to acknowledge and explore the psycho-social implications of living in a globalizing world. Keeping this in mind, this paper attempts to review research particularly with respect to the various ways in which globalization continually influences individuals' identities, lived experiences, and their understanding of the world. It is recommended that as opposed to being focused primarily on the negative implications of globalization, it would be beneficial if we paid more attention to the opportunities facilitated by it. Recommendations have been made for the efficacy of social psychological theories to exploit the positive potential of globalization to deal with emerging socio-cultural issues.
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Psychological capital: Moving towards building organizational strength
Page 200-202
Garima Yadav and Sandeep Kumar, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The aim of this article is to review significant research that has been conducted in the field of Psychological Capital. Psychological Capital or PsyCap refers to individual's positive psychological state of development. The article elaborates the concept of psycap and explains how the construct is unique. Review covers those researches that have analyzed the effect of psychological capital with work related behaviors, the neurological basis of psychological capital, as psychological capital are state like constructs they can be developed. The article reviews the interventions that have been developed to improve psychological capital. The article also sheds lights on the gap found in the literature. Based on the gaps in the literature future suggestions for research in this area is presented.
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Hope: Faith in what will be
Page 203-207
Nisha Chaudhary, Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar College University of Delhi, Delhi, N. K. Chadha, Ex- Head of the Department Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi, and Salma Seth, Department of Applied Psychology Vivekananda College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Studies have long been concentrated on the negatives which old age brings overlooking the positive side of becoming old. Hence, this research enhances the knowledge of the field called Positive Aging. The present research aimed to find the difference between elderly from different culture, living arrangements, and gender and age cohorts on level of hope. The tool used for study was The Adult Trait Hope Scale (Snyder & Harris et al., 1991). The total sample size under study was 179 elderly. The sample was classified on the basis of culture (rural and urban), living arrangements (living with families, living with old age homes & those living only with spouse), gender (males & females) and age cohorts (65-75 years & 75 above years). Results showed for the group of urban aged, the urban elderly living with spouse had a higher score on Hope. In case of gender differences, the mean showed that males were higher on levels of Hope in comparison to females. For the differences in age cohorts, Hope, showed the higher mean values for the age group of 65- 75 years in comparison to elderly who are 75 years and above
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Ways of being happy: Discerning sources of happiness among young adults and adults
Page 208-213
Varsha Singh and Prerna Goyal, Department of Psychology, Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The present study was aimed at discerning the sources of happiness among young adults and adults. For the purpose, a sample of 20 individuals belonging to two age-groups: 18-25 years old and 40-55 years old was taken. Each group had 10 members with 5 males and 5 females. Each age group was assessed for their happiness and their sources of happiness, quantitatively with the help of Revised Oxford Happiness scale by Hills and Argyle (2001). Also, to further gain an understanding about the happiness and the sources of participant's happiness, a list of subjective questions was prepared and the responses of the participants to each question was analyzed for themes and then interpreted for each group. The results indicated that older adults are happier with a mean of 53.70 on the Revised Oxford Happiness scale as compared to young adults with a mean of 37.40. From the qualitative analysis, it can be said that the ways, situations or the sources that makes others happy include a wide variety of sources, ranging from social relationships, money, success to good health, nature, etc.
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What is that song about?: A psychological study of contemporary Hindi music
Page 214-220
Anavila Lochan, Department of Applied Psychology Shyama Prasad Mukherji College, University of Delhi, Delhi and Sumangali Radhakrishnan, Department of Psychology Jesus and Mary College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Music is ubiquitous. The ongoing technological revolution in the field of music has made music easily and inexpensively accessible to millions of youngsters with access to internet and electronic devices like phones, walkmans, and computers. The present study aims at analysing popular songs Hindi songs to study themes around mental health and well-being in popular culture. The study is based on the thematic analysis of 20 most viewed Hindi songs, from recent times, on You tube. The analysis suggests 8 different themes such as living by the pleasure principle, inadequate processing and management of emotions, dependence on alcohol, normalisation of sexual assault and violence, gender stereotyping, obsession with brands, setting and operationalising unfair beauty standards, and nonchalance and power. A larger idea based on the themes implicating the impact of media (songs) on mental health and well being has been discussed.
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Teachers motivation in higher education: A comparative study across discipline and designation
Page 221-225
Shadma Absar, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi and Syed Salma Jameel, Disability Liaison Officer, School of Education, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

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The university teaching demands high motivation with lot of academic and admistrative workload. The present study explored the work motivation of teachers of a central university in Delhi. Data was collected from 120 teachers teaching in professional science, basic science and social science disciplines. Assistant and associate professor were equal in numbers in the selected sample. The present study is a descriptive and exploratory study with a 3 x 2 factorial design. The study aimed to explore the work motivation of teachers across the three disciplines and two designations. Findings of the study revealed that were no significant differences across discipline and designation on the work motivations of teachers. Factor responsible for increasing motivation among teachers were identified, implications for policy and future researches were drawn.
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A comparative study of merchant navy officers on quality of life and sleep
Page 226-230
Ankita, Department of Psychology Panjab University, Chandigarh and Akanksha Tripathi Department of Psychology MCM DAV College for Women, Sec-36, Chandigarh

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The aim of the present study was to compare merchant navy officers on their Quality of sleep and Quality of life. The study was conducted on 300 merchant navy officers with 150 Deck and 150 Engine officers. For this purpose, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) by Buysse et al. (1988) and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF, 1994) were used. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test and 2x2 ANOVA were used to analyse the data. The results showed that Deck officers were found to be low on quality of life and quality of sleep in comparison to engine officers.
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Locus of control and well-being among college students
Page 231-236
Richa Malhotra, Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Self-control and self-regulation abilities are critical components of health, happiness and competence of an individual. High sense of self-control leads to positive outcomes whereas lack of this leads to negativity. On the other hand, subjective well-being has been conceptualized as a satisfactory condition of existence, the absence of undesirable negative emotional states, and the experience of more positive moods and emotions. The purpose of the current study is to examine the locus of control (powerful others, chance control, individual control) and well-being (purpose in life, self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, & personal growth) among college going students. A sample of 120 students attending Delhi University was taken. A gender balance was maintained, with 60 males and females respectively. Participants were administered Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale (LOC) and Ryff's Well-Being Scale. Correlation coefficient and t-test were used for statistical computation. Results showed that high internal and chance control are predictors of Subjective well-being. Well-being components, namely purpose in life, personal growth and self-acceptance, are significantly associated with Internal LOC. On the other hand, high external locus of control was linked to lower levels of well-being. Also, no gender related significant differences were found for Control and well-being. Reasons for the findings, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research have been discussed.
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Life satisfaction among college students: A study exploring the role of resilience
Page 237-239
Sudha Rathore, Department of Psychology, The IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Resilience is the capacity to cope with and adjust to change in the face of adversity. The present study investigated the relationship between resilience (hardiness, optimism, resourcefulness, & purpose) and Life satisfaction among college students. For the study 120 participants (60 males & 60 females) of colleges from Delhi between the ages of 19-21 years were selected. The tools used included and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Satisfaction with life scale. Results revealed that there was a significant gender difference on only one dimension of resilience (Purpose). It was also found that there is a significant positive relation between life satisfaction and components of resilience. The immediate implication of this study would be to develop resilience based class interaction in the college curriculum.
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The impact of positive affect on occupational stress of information technology professionals
Page 240-242
Ajitha Eswaramangalam Ayyappan, Maharani's Science College for Women Bangalore, Karnataka and Pramod R Shivcharan, Department of Psychology Karnatak University, Dharward, Karnataka

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In the growing field of positive psychology, positive affect has proved as an important variable which affects many domains of life. The potentialities of positive affect have become more obvious over the last few years. This study is an attempt to explore the role of positive affect in organizational psychology. The hypothesis was chosen to prove impact of positive affect on occupational stress of Information Technology professionals. The data was collected from a sample of 100 information technology professionals from different software companies in Bangalore. A purposive sampling method was used for the study. The data were analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis. The results of this study confirmed the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the positive affect and the level of occupational stress. The study reveals that people with high positive affect experience less occupational stress.
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Attitudes, self-efficacy and valuing learner diversity: A review
Page 243-245
Deepika Department of Psychology, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The term 'Attitude' encompasses a wide range of affective behaviours (e.g., prefer, accept, appreciate, & commitment). In general, an attitude is a mental state of readiness exerting direct or indirect influence upon an individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Therefore if we have some idea about the attitude of an individual towards a specific thing or activity whether an individual can be persuaded to participate in a particular thing or activity then we would know whether he or she adopts it with interest and sincerity. Attitudes have a powerful influence on behaviour. Teachers' thoughts and beliefs about inclusion impact their behaviour in the classroom. Teachers' beliefs about their ability to succeed in teaching in an inclusive setting or their sense of self-efficacy also impacts on teaching behaviours. Present paper is an endeavor to understand the relation between the three key words Attitude, self-efficacy and valuing the learner diversity accordingly.
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Peace: An emotion through Indian lenses
Page 246-248
Swati Gaur, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Peace is freedom from troubling or abusive contemplations or feelings and amicability in personal relations. By peace I mean the inward peace for what we as a whole continue to strive at each spur of time. Some believe this internal peace can be strengthened through our association with the Divine. Inner peace includes peace of mind and absence of fear. Inner peace (or peace of mind) refers to a condition of being rationally and profoundly settled, with enough information and comprehension to keep oneself strong in the face of discord or stress. In this paper, I am attempting to examine about the same and the way it can be attained or experienced.
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Preksha dhyana: A psychotherapeutic intervention
Page 249-251
Jaishree Jain, Department of Psychology, SMS Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan

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This research was conducted to investigate the clinical effects of a 10 days Preksha meditation samples consisted of 20 male and female between 20-50 years (16 females, 4 males, mean age = 38.29 years) qualified for the study and completed the baseline measurements. Participants mediated daily for 10 days. Psychological instruments were completed at baseline. A pre and post design was used for the study. Results of a mixed-effects model with Pair-Wise comparisons indicated significant decreases in several psychopathological variables such as anxiety, depression, aggression and enhancement in optimism. Thus this study showed that Preksha meditation can be used as psychotherapeutic intervention for a multitude of clinical issues.
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Effects of intense musical experience on way of life
Page 252-257
Vrushali Pathak, Department of Psychology, Delhi University, Delhi

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Musical peak experiences are a significant component of lives of many. Parallels have been created between musical peak experiences and Intense Musical Experiences. Research has identified a number of components from physiological to psychological (Gabrielsson, Lindström, & Wik, 2003) about the nature of intense experiences with music. The present study was done to explore if Intense Musical Experience(s) could have a long term effect on the experiencing individual. Eight narrative interviews were taken for the same and thematic analysis was used to make meaning of the data. It was found that these experiences were powerful, valued, having lasting effects and were a reason for continued engagement with music and achieving a state of balance both with inner self and the outside world.
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Emotional intelligence as a correlate of happiness
Page 258-259
Shikha, Department of Psychology, Govt. College for Women, Sirsa, Haryana

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When being asked the question what do you want most out of life, people from all over the world answer: to be happy. Happiness is the mental or emotional state of well-being which is characterized by positive or pleasant emotions. With the positive psychology movement Psychologists all over the world started focusing on the strengths of people and started studying the concept, correlates, and predictors of happiness and well-being. The present paper studies Emotional intelligence (EI) as one of the correlates of happiness. The people with highly developed EI are proven to be more happy and successful in life. Emotionally intelligent people are known to evaluate situations as less stressful and handle them better which results in a higher satisfaction with life and happiness. The present paper throws light on the concepts of happiness and Emotional Intelligence and attempts to find out how these relate to each other.
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