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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 8 (2017), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Determinants of age at marriage: A community based retrospective report of women in Manipur
Page 183-187
N. Sanajaoba Singh Directorate of Census Operations Porompat, Manipur and L. Hemochandra School of Social Science CPGS, CAU, Barapani

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The purpose of this study is to examine various socio-economic and demographic factors affecting age at marriage among Manipuri women. For this purpose a cross sectional as well as community based study was conducted through cluster sampling in four districts of Manipur Imphal West, Imphal East, Thoubal and Bishnupur. The aim of this study is to identify factors affecting age at marriage among women in Manipur. Univariate, bivariate and logistic regression were employed to examine the relationship between age at marriage and selected background variables. The mean age at marriage is 22.19 years and nearly 16.7% of women are married before 18 years. The findings from logistics regressions indicate that among the six variables of interst, only three factors religion, educational level and age at menarche are the most important determinants of age at marriage in Manipur. The finding of this study may have some policy implication that would help the planners and policy makers of the government to take necessary steps in achieving female age at marriage as high as possible.
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Self-concept of adolescents in context to their gender, location and type of schools
Page 188-190
Amrinder Kaur Desh Bhagat University Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab and Agyajit Singh, Department of Psychology (Retd.) Punjabi University, Patiala

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The study was conducted to measure the self-concept among adolescents in context to gender, location of area (rural & urban) and types of schools (Government & Private). A sample of 400 students of 9th and 10th classes were selected randomly; out of which 200 were male addresses (100 rural & 100 urban) and 200 female adolescents (again 100 rural & 100 urban) studying in government and private schools. Self-concept inventory standardized by Raj Kumar Saraswat was administered to subjects to measure their self-concept. The results show that males were having better self-concept than females. There were no differences between rural and urban as well as government and private school adolescents on self-concept.
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Effect of life skill training on mental health of Iranian high school students
Page 191-195
Naved Iqbal, Department of Psychology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, Hassan Rahimi and FahimeRezai, Department of Psychology Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran, and Sarah Alvi, Department of Psychology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Mental health problems are common among Iranian female adolescents and there were conflicting studies regarding the effect of life skill training on mental health. Therefore, present study was aimed at studying the effect of life skill training on mental health in high school female students in Tehran, Iran. Total sample of the present study comprised sixty (60) female students. They were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. Each group had 30 subjects the experimental group was given Life skill training for 10 days, while the control group was not given such training. Mental health of the Experimental and control group was measured before and after Life skill training. Mental health was measured with the help of the General Health questionnaire developed by Goldberg (1978). It includes the dimensions of physical, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression. ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. Results showed that on all the dimensions of mental health experimental group had scored better than control group on post condition. Thus, life skill training was highly effective in improving mental health of the subjects. Effect size of life skill training on various dimensions of mental health was from moderate to large.
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Peer pressure among adolescents in relation to family climate
Page 196-199
Pushpa, Ramnath and Sandeep Singh, Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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Adolescent is a very critical and crucial period of life. Adolescents are exposed to different kind of peer influences ranging from health risk behaviors to how to behave in social environment. Peer pressure has both positive and negative effects on the psyche of adolescents. Present study focuses on the relationship between family climate and peer pressure among adolescents. The present research work was carried out on a sample of 150 young adults (75 males & 75 females) having age range of 18-21 years. The sample was taken from different educational institutions. The major tools used in the present study were Family Climate Scale propounded by Beena Shah (1990) and Peer Pressure Scale by (Singh & Saini, 2010). After collection of the data, statistical analysis has been made with the help of statistical tools of descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment method of correlation and Independent sample-t test. It has been observed in the finding that there is inverse relationship between positive family climate and peer pressure. The finding of the study also showed that there has been significant gender difference on some dimensions of family climate and peer pressure.
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Workplace bullying in school teachers: An Indian enquiry
Page 200-205
Saurabh Sinha and Rama Shankar Yadav, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

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This paper aims to explore the shared understanding about workplace bullying in Indian educational settings. The study also intends to explore the major antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying. Possible solutions to diminish the workplace bullying among teachers were also generated. Qualitative thematic analysis was carried out to engender the meaning and possible solutions for reducing the impact of workplace bullying. Twenty semi structured interviews on senior secondary (10+2) teachers were conducted during the study. Workplace bullying as perceived by Indian teachers was a prolonged act of humiliation and excessive monitoring on employees. Workplace bullying occurs in Indian educational context to exhibit power and establish dominance over the employees. It was also reported that bullied employees had frequent complaint of problems such as stress, anxiety and depression. The act of bullying may even develop intention to quit the job, which is considered detrimental for the organization.
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Indian woman representation: The male eye and the media lens
Page 206-210
Amrita Bedi, Department of Psychology North Campus, University of Delhi, New Delhi and Simran Bedi Clinical Psychologist Masina Hospital, Mumbai

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Contemporary world is dominated by communication that transforms and transfers information at a rate where it is not possible to escape its influences. Media mediates our attitude, outlook and lifestyle and moulds the stances we take in our everyday lives. The infamous Delhi Gang Rape case of 16th December, 2012 brought in a revolution in the world of media regarding a topic otherwise stigmatized and expanded the public eye's view of Indian woman and her portrayal of being the “weaker sex”. With this as the background the present study aims at elucidating the inter-generational differences of Indian men towards their view of woman and her associated roles. A mixed method approach was adopted to evaluate the concept related to women. The sample consisted of 100 Indian males-50 from the age group of 18-25 years and 50 from 45-55 years. For quantitative analysis, semantic differential method was used and the D-statistic was calculated. For the qualitative analysis, blogs written post 16th December, 2012 Delhi gang-rape were analyzed and the themes arising in them were identified.
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Opinions of college going rural girls about eve teasing: A sociological analysis
Page 211-213
Vinod Kumari and Kamaljeet Kaur, Department of Sociology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana

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The modern India is emerging as a global power but for half of its population, the women across the country, struggle to live life with dignity continue. Women, irrespective of their caste, class and educational status, are not safe and have been the victim of exploitations since long time in different fields in their life both physically, socially, mentally and economically. Eve teaching is the most common act of public violence against women which includes various forms of harassment like making vulgar comment, indecent proposal, unwelcome gestures, attempt to make physical contact, etc. The present study was conducted on 75 girls studying in rural colleges. The data were collected using a interview schedule and analysed for drawing inferences. The results revealed that 64.0 per cent respondents had faced one or other form of eve teaching in their life. More than 2/3rd of the respondents were against the opinion that dress of girl is responsible for eve teaching. The main causes of eve teaching explained by the respondents were lack of respect for girls (89.0%), lack of education (80.0%), lower sex ratio (70.0%), low mentality of males (68.0%) and shyness of girls (67.0%). Majority of girls were of the opinion that incidence of eve teasing can be reduced by strictly enforcing laws (72.0%), moral education at home (76.0%), informing parents (80.0%), awareness about surrounding and self confidence (84.0% each).
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Treating negative self-appraisal in a young adult male with social anxiety disorder using integrative CBT
Page 214-216
Jyoti Dubey and Shweta Singh King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Social anxiety disorder is highly distressing for the sufferer as it causes substantial impairment in social and occupational spheres of life. We discuss about a young male with social anxiety disorder due to negative appraisal of himself. He had the complaints of fear of interacting with people, fear of speaking at public places negative about himself which increased since last 3 years. He was treated with Integrative CBT using elements of CBT, Exposue therapy and Visualization techniques.
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Experiencing school supportiveness: Assessment of negative mental health in children
Page 217-221
Aradhana Shukla, Department of Psychology, Kumaun University Campus, Almora, Uttrakhand

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This study was aimed to find relative efficacy of grade, types of school, gender and level of experiential supportiveness of school climate on negative mental health with special reference to emotional disturbance and depression in children and early adolescents. It was contended that: Variation in grade would cause variation in emotional disturbance and depression; Participants studying in different schools would show difference in their scores of emotional disturbance and depression; Boys and girls would show difference in the magnitude of emotional disturbance and depression; Magnitude of discrepancy in relation to emotional disturbance and depression would found different with difference in the scores of experiential supportiveness of school climate. Three hundred and sixty participants of 5-9 grades served as participants and they were arranged according to the requirements of 4-way factorial design with 3 grades (5, 7, & 9), 3 types of schools (public, government, & municipal), 2 gender (boys & girls) and 2 levels of school climate supportiveness (high & low). In this study three measures were taken and they were: school climate supportiveness scale, emotional disturbance scale and depression Scale. Data were analyzed quantitatively as well as qualitatively. It was found that all main effects and interactions were significant. A close relationship between emotional disturbance and depression was also revisited.
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Noise effect on short-term memory of traffic personnel
Page 222-224
Vatan P. Bhosale, Department of Psychology, Smt. G. K. G. Kanya Mahavidyalya, Jaysingpur, Maharashtra and Vikas S. Minchekar, Department of Clinical Psychology, Smt. Kasturbai Walchand College, Sangli, Maharashtra

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The purpose of the present study is to find out the Noise Effect on Short Term Memory among Traffic Personnel. It was hypothesized that, (i) There will be significant difference between high noise (high db) and low noise (low db) among Short Term Memory (ii) There will be no significant difference between male and female traffic personnel among Short Term Memory. The Sample (n = 40) for this study consisted traffic personnel in Sangli and Kolhapur districts. Data was collected through Short Term Memory scale and Sound Meter application. Obtained data analyzed by student 't' test. Result reveled that, (i) there are strongly differ on high noise and low noise among Short Term Memory and (ii) there are no difference between male and female traffic personnel among Short Term Memory. That means both hypotheses was accepted.
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Study of happiness among male and female students of professional background using social media
Page 225-227
Manju Jha, Department of Sociology, Govt. Pt Shyamacharan Shukla College, Dharsewa, Pt Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh and Ushakiran Agrawal, Department of Psychology, Govt. D.B. Girls P. G. College, Pt Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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The present study focuses on studying social media and happiness among male and female students of professional background using social media. A sample of 40 female 40 male students from professional educational background ( engineering, medical , management ) were chosen on incidental cum random basis . The data obtained was put to t test, male students of professional educational background and social media users were found happier as compared to female professional students and media users.
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Living with type 1 diabetes: Diabetic children's experiences and perceptions
Page 228-233
Neelima Chopra and Bindiya Narang Centre for Early Childhood Development and Research, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Research studies on health and disease have been recurrently inclined towards demographic and medical perspectives. Lately the importance of 'emic' perspective has been realized in this field so as to understand from the viewpoints, perceptions and opinions of the concerned subjects. With the 'new sociology of childhood' emphasizing the agency of children, it is imperative to consider children's acuity and listen to their assertions in the matters that affect their life and living. The foregoing paper derives its stance from an interpretative research with Type 1 Diabetic children and features their perceptions related to ongoing health condition and treatment seeking, the stressors encountered, impact on their daily activities as well as coping patterns. Thirty children, aged 6-12 years, seeking treatment in a public hospital setting were enrolled for the study with due consent from the guardians and after seeking assent from children themselves. To obtain relevant data, child friendly methods such as storytelling and personalized informal interviews were used and the narratives obtained were analyzed and interpreted thematically. The findings ascertained that children were aware of their condition and found it highly disturbing and stressful. The most cited problems were restricted diet, daily multiple insulin injections and associated pain, episodes of hypoglycemia, constant fatigue, incessant parental vigil and missed school. Besides, it was noted that incongruity with distressed care givers negatively impacted children's own self esteem as well as treatment adherence.
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Effect of ICBT on alienation among individuals with depression in relation to personality type
Page 234-236
Renuka Joshi and Kanchan Yadav, Department of Psychology, D.A.V. (PG) College, Dehradun, Uttaranchal

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The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of ICBT on alienation among individuals with depression of Type A/B personality types, for which 2x2x2 factorial design was made. The selected sample of 80 subjects of 18-40 years of age was equally divided on the basis of personality types and gender. The stratified random sampling was used for sample selection. ADSS scale developed by Pallavi Bhatnagar (2011) was administered for screening. Type A/B Behavioural pattern scale developed by Upinder Dhar and Manisha Jain (2001) was employed to measure personality types. For measuring Alienation Al- Scale (2010) developed by Hardeo Ojha was used. Each subject was introduced to internet based CBT intervention. Pre and post test were followed to measure the effect of ICBT on depression, and alienation. After data collection statistical analysis was done. The t-test and ANOVA was utilised to examine the outcome of the study. Results revealed that Type A and Type B personality differ significantly after ICBT intervention on depression and alienation. This difference was found to be higher on depression and alienation after ICBT intervention of subjects with type A personality. Results also revealed that male and female subjects differ significantly after ICBT intervention on depression and alienation. Pre post intervention on depression and alienation scores was also found to differ significantly.
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Cultural interpretations of dreams: The case of native Amharic language speakers in Amhara region, Ethiopia
Page 237-241
Hilawe Kinfemichael and M.V.R. Raju, Department of Psychology and Parapsychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

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Dreams are generally thought of as either messages of good things to come, encouragement and guidance or warnings of threats, danger or bad news. Dreams in some cultures signify the death of close relatives and still others believe dreams are the opposite of what is dreamt. Thus, in this study a rigorous attempt has been made to examine the cultural interpretations and uses of dreams at a glance in Amhara region native Amharic language speakers. Key informants and people who are believed to have a skill in interpreting dreams are interviewed. Then, the various types of dreams were first collected in the source language (Amharic Language) and then transcribed in to English language. This study used qualitative design mainly content analysis approach. After an in-depth reading and rereading of the various types of dreams, nineteen dreams were selected and arranged in to three major themes by using thematic coding.
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Maternal death during unaided delivery: A review
Page 242-245
Dolon Dawn and Sonali De, Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

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Why do so many women still die in pregnancy or childbirth? WHO has summarized the lack of access and utilization of essential obstetric services as crucial factor underlying maternal deaths. Uptake of institutional birth or aided birth during delivery is the single most important factor in the fight against maternal mortality and morbidity. Yet, in many parts of the developing world the majority of births are still conducted at home with family members or with a traditional birth attendant. The medical causes do not seem to be the only factors that affect maternal mortality. There are various socio-cultural and psychological factors that affect maternal mortality. Maternal deaths are indicative of condition of the women in the society and have long term implication for the development of the country. In this review paper the reasons for uptake of home-delivery are discussed and there is an urgent need to be more sensitive to the psychological reasons behind their uptake of unaided delivery is stressed.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
President, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
suneil.psy@gmail.com

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